“We all live with the objective of being happy

“We all live with the objective of being happy; our lives are all different and yet the same.” -Anne Frank
The Holocaust was the systematic and bureaucratic persecution of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its allies which lasted from January 30, 1933 to May 8, 1945. Many jews were captured, tormented and often faced the same fate, death. However, some were fortunate enough to document events they had to endure through literature, or survive this time period and live to tell their story.
To start off, in the excerpt from Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl

An atom can be an ion

An atom can be an ion. But an ion cannot be an atom. An atom is the basic unit of an element that consist of proton, electrons and neutrons. Protons and neutron are located at the nucleus. Electrons are not located in the nucleus but rather outside of the nucleus. A proton is positively charge of +1. A neutron has a charge of 0. An electron has a negative charge of -1. The amount of protons in the atom is the atomic number which is arrange in the periodic table of elements. To determine the identity of an atom look at the number of positively charge proton in the atom’s nucleus. A stable atom has to have the same amount of protons and electrons and have no net charge. An ion is a particle or a group of particles that has a negative or positive charge. An ion is formed when an atom or group of atoms gain or lose electrons. Ions lose or gains electrons to be like a noble gas which has a complete valence shell. Electron configuration describes the arrangement of around the nucleus of an atom. It predicts the how atom will chemically bond and how it will behave. To find the electron configuration you first must find the atomic number of an element. The atomic number of an element is found on top of the element on the periodic table of elements. Next determined the charge of the atom. Uncharged atoms will have the same electron as shown in the periodic table. Charged atoms will have the more or less electrons based on what their charge is. Add or subtract depending if it has gain or loss an electron. Next determine which orbital set it is in. If it is s then it can hold 2 electron. P orbital can hold 6 electrons. The d orbital can hold 10. And the f orbital can hold 14. Next understand the electron configuration notation. 1s22s22p6 is a simple electron configuration notation. This shows that there are 2 electrons in the 1s orbital set, two electrons in the 2s orbital set and 6 electron in the 2p set. 2+2+6=10.

The Namibian economy has faced ups and downs during the past decade with the current situation being much worse than any in the history of Namibia

The Namibian economy has faced ups and downs during the past decade with the current situation being much worse than any in the history of Namibia. However, each cycle of down turn has resulted in resizing of organisations, lay-offs employees, reduced pay checks and change in working hours which all of these have critical implications for today’s workforce.
It is a well-known fact that employees are the most valuable asset to an organisation because their individual performances transform into the overall performance of the organisation, hence goals and objectives of an organisation can be only attained with the support of its employees. The top-performing organisation in Namibia is a contribution of the job satisfaction and suitable working environment for their employees (Deloitte, 2017). The performance of individual employees whom can be permanent or temporary employees within an organisation is manifested in the success of the organisation. The organisation HR personnel plays a big role in hiring a suitable candidate whose behaviour aligns well and can bring skills and expertise to the organisation which includes both permanent and temporary employees.
The use of temporary employees is widely used in all sectors such as manufacturing to services and other occupations, including security officers, construction workers, registered nurses, bankers and information technologists (Wandera, 2011). Temporary employees can be described as any person hired by organisation to provide his or her service and such person is legal employee of the firm for a specific fixed period of time or explicitly stipulated in the employment contract and such employee is easily dismissed when the contract period is expired ( Okafor and Rasak, 2015., Dacilyte and Aranauskaite, 2012).
With the current economic crisis in Namibia, organisations are critically emphasizing on minimizing the operation and other cost (such as hiring expenses). The cost cutting have emerged to affect Organisation hiring behaviours and thus encourage the hiring of employees of temporary basis to minimise and eliminate obligations (The practice of hiring temporary or contract workers is perceived as a cheaper, fast tracking and saving option for most organisation (Wandera, 2011).
Temporary employees provide services to ensure that the organisation operation and services are not disrupted when permanent employees are on long leave such as maternity leaves. This also reduce the hiring cost as the high performing temporary employees can get promoted or become a source of potential future permanent employees. The company may also save a lot of money as temporary employees are not usually provided with benefits such as medical aid and pension funds. This also allow organisations to dismiss or terminate work for non-permanent employees easily (Bernhard-Oettel, 2008).
According to Ongera ; Juma, (2014), temporary employment in the modern workplace is gradually becoming a permanent feature in most of the organisations. Temporary employment may include seasonal, part-time, on-call, day hire, fixed contract workers, casual workers and periodic workers. Temporary employees have a significant impact on the organisation’s performance. The organisation performance is directly related to the performance of individual employees (permanent and temporary).Temporary employment in the workplaces can impact the working condition both positive and negative for themselves and permanent employees alike. Thus, this document intends to study on how the temporary employment impacts the employee performance at Namibia Water Corporation (Namwater).

The Influence of Tabula Rasa in Frankenstein

The Influence of Tabula Rasa in Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus
Tabula Rasa (Blank State) is an empiric philosophical notion that John Locke used is a crucial factor for analyzing and understanding Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus. Locke is a philosopher who had an idea known as Tabula Rasa, which literally means blank state and Locke implies that individuals are not conceived with innate ideas. Infants must learn from an instructor which are mostly the parents of the infant so that he or she will fill that blank state with knowledge. Locke stresses on the fact that experience is everything in terms of education. Locke’s concept of “tabula rasa” affected the development of Shelley’s character, Frankenstein’s creature. It is understood that she was under the influence of John Locke’s theory as she was reading Locke’s book Essay Concerning Human Understanding while Shelley was writing Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus.
As John Locke states in his book An Essay Concerning Human Understanding that “Let us suppose the mind to be, as we say, white paper, void of all characters.” (78). This notion is applied in Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus and it influenced the cognitive development for the creature in the novel. This idea is supported by the writing of Mary Shelley and it is understood in the novel from the words of the creature such as, “I was benevolent and good; misery made me a fiend. Make me happy, and I shall again be virtuous.” (207). This statement is made by the creature when he was trying to explain his murderous actions. It is understood from this line that Mary Shelley’s depiction of the creature had a blank state when he was first created by Victor Frankenstein, but he became that way because he was rejected by his creator and society. Another example of how did Tabula Rasa influenced this literary work is that, “It is with considerable difficulty that I remember the original √¶ra of my being: all the events of that period appear confused and indistinct. A strange multiplicity of senses seized me, and I saw, felt, heard, and smelt, at the same time; and it was, indeed, a long time before I learned to distinguish between the operations of my various senses.” (213). This line from the novel reflects that what the creature thought when he was created and how blank, empty state he was in.
Another influential subject that Tabula Rasa influenced Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus and Frankenstein’s creature is that the idea in Locke’s Tabula Rasa that the infant should be educated by her or his parents and when Victor Frankenstein created the Creature he abandoned him, and this shaped the actions of the Creature. It can be explained from these lines “But where were my friends and relations? No father had watched my infant days, no mother had blessed me with smiles and caresses; or if they had, all my past life was now a blot, a blind vacancy in which I distinguished nothing. From my earliest remembrance I had been as I then was in height and proportion. I had never yet seen a being resembling me or who claimed any intercourse with me.” (142). From these lines Shelley wanted to explain that the Creature was pure from the beginning of his life but the absence of a family, friends or at least a father figure shaped him the way he is now because there was no one to teach or instruct him about life and morals so that the Creature had to dive in to the world without no knowledge or no instructions from his creator Victor Frankenstein. As Tabula Rasa suggests that if Victor would not have been abandoned the Creature and instruct him the Creature would have been a completely different character, so Mary Shelley used this notion to stress the fact that the importance of parental guide.
Other subject to analyze Tabula Rasa effect on Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus is society and environment because these concepts is a part of John Locke’s Tabula Rasa notion. When we consider the Creature as an infant whose have no idea about life and morals because there was no parental figure that he should reflect the societal and environmental situation of Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus setting, and it was not an ideal society or an environment that the Creature live in and learn about life and morals. “I admired virtue and good feelings and loved the gentle manners and amiable qualities of my cottagers, but I was shut out from intercourse with them, except through means which I obtained by stealth, when I was unseen and unknown, and which rather increased than satisfied the desire I had of becoming one among my fellows.” (142). This line from the book shows that the Creature was ready to believe the goodness of people and society and perform good deeds, he was declined and detested by the members of the society which made him hide and disguise from people in society, but this made situation worse and slowly turned him to an evil human being that he does not really want to be. As Tabula rasa implies people are not driven to develop based on the internal or biological force; they learn and develop through interacting with the environment. Contact with situations in the environment creates a change in person. The non-existent relationship with environment and society shaped the Creature and it is understood that influence of environment and society about Tabula Rasa influenced the way Mary Shelley wrote and depicted the setting of the book.
To concentrate my thoughts, the idea of Tabula Rasa had a big impact on literary work Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus because the way Mary Shelley wrote this novel. In the novel it is clearly seen that the Creature is like an infant with no opinions or knowledge about the world he came in. He was all alone and there was no one that could teach him what to do or how to do even his creator Victor Frankenstein ran away from him. He could have been a completely different person and character if his creator or even the society had not turn their backs on him, but he was detested so this made him who he is and how he reacted the situations he was in. He was basically a baby in a big body that wanted sympathy, love, compassion and human interaction and a parental or societal guidance which maybe would have made him to be a better person and a part of society. Without John Locke’s Tabula Rasa this novel could have been completely different and maybe it would not gain the attraction it had on the literary world as a classic novel it is now

Prokaryotes known as eubacteria have three fundamental structures which are poles

Prokaryotes known as eubacteria have three fundamental structures which are poles, cocci and winding. The bacterial cell divider is the absolute most vital supporter of cell shape. Fit as a fiddle of cell divider, nearness or nonappearance of flagellum, and if show, places of flagellum, the eubacteria can be ordered by Gram Stain. Most importantly, gram positive microscopic organisms are all around dim, blue and dull purple shades when they persevere through a procedure of stressing. Their essential highlights are inspected based on their cytoplasmic lipid film, cell divider, lastly the nearness of the microscopic organisms in the cystol. Gram positive microscopic organisms are fundamentally made out of a container polysaccharide, thick peptidoglycan layer, and flagellum which are available in specific species. It can either be high-impact or anaerobic. Gram positive microscopic organisms have an easier cell divider, with a lot of peptidoglycan. (1)

The purpose of a gram positive test is to identify the general unknown. The Gram stain is a helpful for distinguishing and ordering microscopic organisms. The Gram stain is differential and enables you to order microorganisms as either gram negative or gram positive. After the gram stain method, all microscopic organisms that is gram-positive the cells will recolor purple and decolorize gradually and hold an essential stain. In using this method, the discovery of the general unknown, which is the main topic is Streptococcus bovis. There were nine different test that were performed to discover the general unknown. The first test was the gram stain which resulted in the discovery of a gram positive bacteria. The next test was the catalase test. In this test you take a sample of the bacteria and place it on a slide. Then take hydrogen peroxide, using a dropper and place a small amount on the bacteria and observe. If there are bubbles that form that is proving that the gram positive bacteria are Staphylococcus. However, if no bubbles persist, which in the case of my general unknown the catalase test proves that it is Streptococcus. The test following is the hemolysis of the bacteria. In this case it was Alpha hemolysis which means there was some breakdown of red blood cells but not completely. The fourth test is the bacitracin. The results were negative with no reaction. Following that test is the camp reaction. This test it to identify group B hemolytic streptococci. In the gram positive test, it is negative with no arrow. The next two checks the disk which are the sxt disk and the P disk. Those two had no reaction and were both deemed negative. The last two test to be check are the bile esculin and the NaCl (salt) test. The bile esculin test consists of a solid when it is negative the results will be a brownish color. When it is positive like in this case the solid will turn black or black butt. The NaCl or salt test is liquefied and if the test is positive it will be cloudy. However, in this general unknown cycle the test is negative which the NaCl test is clear. Once this list of test is complete you can identify your gram positive, general unknown.

The results of the general unknown test is Streptococcus bovis. Streptococcus gallolyticus, once Streptococcus bovis, is a types of Gram-positive microorganisms that in people is related with urinary tract diseases, endocarditis and colorectal growth. Streptococcus bovis is a gram-positive bacterium that develops in sets or chains of cocci and is a typical occupant of the gastrointestinal tract. It is both oxidase and catalase-negative and is a non-motile, non-sporulation, facultative anaerobe. S. bovis has connections to colon tumor, liver ailments, neonatal septicemia, and all the more once in a while, neonatal meningitis and grown-up meningitis. Streptococcus bovis’ cell surface has an assortment of proteins and polysaccharides that are either covalently or non-covalently attached to the cell divider, much like other gram-positive microscopic organisms. The cell surface can be separated into four further classes LPXTG-like proteins, pseudopili, surface lipoproteins, and container. The container is required all together for the living being to be impervious to phagocytosis. S. bovis is a ruminal bacterium that has high rates of catabolism, and is a model of vitality spilling. S. bovis’ controls vitality spilling by means of changes in the centralization of intracellular fructose and can quickly age starch and create lactic corrosive as the final product of aging. The taxonomy of S. bovis is the domain which is Bacteria. Bacteria is a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. the Phylum is Fimicutes. Firmicutes forms endospores which help the cell survive extreme conditions. The class is Bacilli, which contains pathogens and is a classification of bacteria. The order is Lactobacillales, which is a bacterium that share common and physiological characteristics. (3) Streptococcaceae is a family of gram positive bacteria. The genus is Streptococcus, gram positive bacteria that grow in chains or pairs. Lastly, the species name is S.¬†gallolyticus.
The more pathogenic gram-positive microbes exhibit a mind boggling cluster of surface structures to the human or creature host. Gram positive minuscule life forms are in a general sense made out of a holder polysaccharide, thick peptidoglycan layer, and flagellum which are accessible in particular species. It can either be high-affect or anaerobic. Gram positive tiny living beings have a less demanding cell divider, with a great deal of peptidoglycan. The motivation behind a gram positive test is to recognize the general obscure. The Gram stain is a useful for recognizing and requesting minuscule life forms. The Gram stain is differential and empowers you to arrange microorganisms as either gram negative or gram positive. In utilizing this strategy, the revelation of the general obscure, which is the fundamental subject is Streptococcus bovis. Streptococcus bovis, is a sorts of Gram-constructive microorganisms that in individuals is connected with urinary tract illnesses, endocarditis and colorectal development. This illness caused by this gram positive microorganism can be cured, however can resurface at any time. (2)

The mission statement at Crowne Plaza Canberra is to influence a diverse workforce therefore by building leadership effectiveness

The mission statement at Crowne Plaza Canberra is to influence a diverse workforce therefore by building leadership effectiveness. By this statement we at Crowne Plaza make sure that all the employees are doing respective tasks efficiently. We always strive in order to provide unique and enjoyable experiences for guests and staff at all times. The focus here is on authentic hospitality, innovation and providing a rewarding experience to guests and also the sub-ordinates which therefore leads to superior results.
The management here acquires diversity by offering a diverse as well as a committed workforce. Here we treat other colleagues with respect as well as dignity, we therefore effectively listen to other colleagues’ viewpoints, thoughts and opinions. The main focus here is to become better by representing women, minorities, and people with disabilities by different number of practices that are being followed within the organisation.
At Crowne Plaza Canberra “Diversity” is therefore considered to be at the core of their mission statement, vision statement and their core values. Crowne Plaza has therefore created an environment which endorses different culture, different backgrounds and different opinions. In this hotel diversity is promoted through variety of frameworks which consists of culture, talent in order to support diversity and to create a competitive business.
Crowne Plaza doesn’t accept discrimination on the grounds of race, colour, gender, ethnicity, marital status etc. The workplace here completely endorses the local communities in which the hotel operates. Crowne Plaza focuses on making sure that in order to promote diversity female colleagues are taking part in leadership development and mentoring programmes. Women are expanding their productivity by suggesting about the direction of their position in this organisation as it eventually drives teams to be more productive. Such an organisation makes sure that they are taking necessary steps to empower women to ensure they can work cohesively with male counterparts for the most beneficial outcome for the company. They are providing opportunities to women in order to achieve their goals. An example can be seen where the chief executive officer of Crowne Plaza Hotels and Resorts has joined other hotel executive officers to make sure that 30% of the senior leadership position are being taken by females by the end of 2020. https://www.ihgplc.com/responsible-business/our-people/diversity-and-equality

It is an investigation of the United States economy

It is an investigation of the United States economy. The critical period of America’s economic development was prior to the Civil war. Of which it was a bloody and devastating interruption to economic progress of the nation that sent into a longer recovery than the Revolutionary war. Between the Revolutionary war and the civil war U.S planted the seeds for a vast complex and dynamic industrial system. It was only rivaled by Great Britain. The United States transformed its self through modernization during the six decades before the civil war.
Once the Constitution came into effect in 1787 it gave the new Federal Government the authority to establish an environment for economic growth and prosperity. It put an end to tariff wars between the states allowing free commerce flow state to state. Alexander Hamilton as first secretary of the Treasury was Presidents George Washington’s most influential cabinet member. He proposed that the federal government assume all state war debts to establish America’s credit to pay off the money they borrow. He established the First Bank of the United States in 1791. Hamilton wanted the America to grow out of its primary agrarian self-sufficient society and into an industrial power modeled off England. America was destined to grow through trade, banking, and industrialization. Hamilton established the fiscal and monetary underpinnings of the new nation. In the North a complex capital market was about to take off.
The political stabilities of the early 1790s the an already healthy economy and the abundant resources showed promise for long term economic growth. Between 1793 and 1808 the American commerce was principally dependent on international trade and shipping with Europe. The New England states expanded at a very impressive pace during this period.
The Napoleon wars in 1793 the enactment of the trade Embargo at the end of 1807, and the peace treaty of 1814 were noteworthy events for the economy before 1815. The year that brought age of good feelings to the United States. After the end of the war a three-year depression followed. However, the economy had already advanced passed its 1790s development.
The re-export and international trade had been the main man source for economic expansion. However, after the Embargo the United states look to internal sufficiency instead being solely dependent on resources from foreign powers. The freight rates declined tremendously after 1818. Further, regulations and tough competition caused it to be less of a driving force in the economy. After 1807 the rapid growth of manufacturing took of the role of re-exports and shipping. America was making its own goods from it abundant of natural resources. Rather than shipping them to Europe to be processed. The industrial Revolution had begun and was quickly making its to the United States at the beginnings of the nineteenth century. It would begin the advancement in the next step in civilization. Abstaining of British goods came at a price to the American industry. However, it was not enough to stop the rise in population and it caused the creation of new industry at home. New inventions and investments nurtured growth and economic expansion.

Consequently, economic expansion was principle boosted by the ingenuity political stability of the United States before the civil. Industries were established to take advantage of the abundant natural resources available in settled areas as well as the frontier. They provided opportunity when before only agriculture profession were the lone choice. Tariffs were imposed to drive local industry rather than outsourcing it.

All the quantitative data available for 1790 to 1860 suggest a significate and sustained economic advancement. By 1860 0ne-fith to 0ne sixth of the U.S population in urban areas that were rapidly developing. In addition, one third of the countries revenue was being produced by its manufacturing industry. On the other hand, this is not to dismiss the impact of agricultural. It was a crucial factor on the growing national economy. Large agricultural areas took root in the eastern part United states. It was an essential development as they were needed to supply new growing human population centers. There were so effective that they had enough left over for exports. The number of farm worker kept growing until the civil war. However, at the same time rural farmer immigrating to the cities for better jobs working in factories instead of operating their own farms. Despite this the farming community kept on increasing. New England the population employed in farming reached its peak around 1840 and dwindled slowly in the following years twenty years. Farmers in States like New York and Pennsylvania increased or were stable in numbers.
Written in the 1960’s the book is a little outdated. The book is not the easiest to read because of all the graphs, tables, and charts. However, once you get past that Dr. North presents an understandable account of the economic forces of the United States before the Civil war. The growing population, trade, the vast resources of the North American continent, and improved transportation fueled the modernization of the young nation.

People tend to separate life into two distinct time periods

People tend to separate life into two distinct time periods: childhood and adulthood. While childhood is characterized by a lack of responsibilities, education, or strength; the latter emphasizes maturity, wisdom, and the ability to aid others. However, the bold line that separates the two age ranges is not always so heavily drawn in regards to the characteristics the person exhibits. Often, a forty-year-old can have childish, immature tantrums just as a ten-year-old can speak as brilliantly as a full-fledged adult. In Great Expectations by Charles Dickens, Joe Gargery exhibits the blurred line as his interactions and characteristics vary between traditionally childlike and stereotypically adult.
Though Joe is not classically intelligent, his wisdom and eagerness in raising Pip is an adultlike aspect of his character. After Pip confides in Joe about lying and being called common, Joe reprimands, teaches, and uplifts Pip in his response – a very mature and unchildlike thing to do.
First, Joe scolds Pip for lying and pressures Pip to not lie again. Though this is already a mature and responsible reaction, Joe’s subsequent comments demonstrate adultlike aspects even further. Rather than simply yelling at Pip, Joe recognizes why Pip lied and attempts to console him. He explains that everyone has features that can be considered common, but Pip is uncommon. Joe understands Pip’s actions and comforts him about his insecurities. Joe’s treatment of Pip and Pip’s willingness to confide in Joe illustrates an almost parental relationship between the pair in which Joe upholds all the necessary adultlike characteristics. Joe’s ability to be helpful, knowledgeable, and stern when speaking to Pip, therefore, exemplifies his patience, wisdom, and maturity.
Though many adult-like qualities can be attributed to Joe in his dealings with Pip, he exhibits many childlike characteristics when interacting with other adults.

When surrounded by other adults, Joe returns to a childlike state. When a child is in the company of a group of adults it is common for them to become scared or shy. Due to the large difference in age, size, and experience, it is understandable why children feel more powerless or less-than than the adults around them. Joe, however, is also an adult yet resembles this childlike characteristic when surrounded by other adults. When the adults at the table repeatedly speak poorly of Pip, Joe does not stand up for him but rather makes a silent and passive gesture. Instead of making himself heard or telling the table what he thinks, Joe comforting Pip in a way most of the other adults would not pick up on. In the company of other adults, Joe acts small, weak, and powerless – characteristics generally held by children.

Roberts and Mahoney

Roberts and Mahoney (2004) have examined 125 accounting studies that used the stakeholder language and found that nearly 65 percent “use the term stakeholder without reference to any version of stakeholder theory”. The important thing is that writers use the same label to refer to a lot different concepts. This of course can have great consequences on ethical, policy, and strategic conclusions.
Freeman (1984) defines stakeholders as “any group or individual who can affect or is affected by the achievement of the organization objectives”. About twenty of the 75 definitions share this definition. Friedman (2006) states that this definition is more balanced and much broader than the definition
A very common way of differentiating the different kinds of stakeholders is to consider groups of people who have classifiable relationships with the organization. Friedman (2006) means that there is a clear relationship between definitions of what stakeholders and identification of who are the stakeholders. The main groups of stakeholders are customers, Employees, Local communities, Suppliers and distributors, Shareholders


The movie Crash

The movie Crash, directed by Paul Haggis, starts off by saying, “It’s the sense of touch we miss, so much that we crash into each other just so we can feel something”. The word ‘touch’ suggests human connection, just as ‘feel’ suggests emotion. We, as humans, want to feel a common human existence. This search for human connection continues, despite several issues that separate us, and it is the search itself that provides the main theme of the movie. For this assignment, I will show how the movie’s use of gender roles relates to this theme from the sociological perspective.
Crash shows how gender roles can interfere with the connection between people. The traditional male roles of ‘provider’ and ‘protector’ are deeply evaluated. In one scene, a black film director named Cameron is pulled over by a racist police officer named John Ryan. Cameron’s wife is with him, and soon begins antagonizing the officer and refusing to comply, even at Cameron’s repeated request, and so they are checked for weapons. When Cameron responds without aggression as John frisks his wife in a sexually suggestive way, she perceives him as failing to protect her. She later accuses him of allowing her humiliation so the people he works with wouldn’t “read about him in the paper and realize that he’s actually black”. In a scene at the film studio where Cameron directs, this does seem to be a fear of his, as he quietly agrees to make a scene more racially stereotypical. So perhaps fear of job loss did factor into his failure in his protector role. However, if Cameron had become unemployed due to losing his public reputation, he’d eventually fail in his provider role. So he is torn between two equally demanding roles, and this role strain is precipitated by the racial discrimination he encounters. This causes an argument between the two. She is hurt that he didn’t protect her somehow, and he is angry about her hostility towards the police officer. After her “careless” behavior causes problems for the couple, she further hurts his pride by making him feel insufficient. This puts an even bigger strain on their marriage, which seems to be on the verge of collapse.