Negotiations are defined as a form of conflict management involving two or more parties, who have the requirements and requirements that choose to negotiate through the grant and take processes involving proposals and proposals for mutual agreement to seek mutual agreement. Basically negotiations are the behavior and processes in which parties will jointly exchange, discuss the terms and measures to jointly address and agree on the problem, the situation they are close to the expectations they expect. Negotiations are very important in life, including career, business, and political, social or personal life while people face daily negotiations. The results have a direct impact on the benefits of consultants and other people around them. Negotiations are not dependent on third parties to simplify the process and make decisions, but the processes and agreements formed by the parties of the conflict. These negotiating techniques are primarily for sales, but are also used for other negotiations, such as debt negotiations, negotiating contracts, buying negotiations, salaries and employment contracts, and the extent to which all other negotiating situations.
In this case, I have chosen an article titled Negotiation under Possible Third-Party Resolution to be reviewed. This article was written by Sigbjørn Birkeland in 2013. Based on this article, the author has used a integrative approaches and models of bargaining behavior in reviewing the effect of a possible third-party resolution.
In this article it has been discussed that third parties may be able to be as intermediaries who may be able to reach the agreement of both parties. In mediation, external parties enter into a state with the aim of assisting parties in reaching agreement. Intermediaries can facilitate, propose, and recommend something that can benefit both parties in the negotiations. Mediators work with both parties to reach a resolution but do not represent both parties. Instead, the role of the mediator is to help parties share feelings, verify facts, exchange perceptions, and work towards agreements.
2.0 THEORIES AND IMPORTANT CONCEPTS IN NEGOTIATION
In this articles have use integrative approaches. That refers to the potential of the party organized in a way that creates the same value or raises the pie. The ability to integrate only exists when there are many issues involved in this negotiation as parties must solve the problem for both parties to be satisfied with the outcome. Integrative also known as bargain hunt is a negotiating strategy where the parties collaborate to find a win-win solution for their dispute. The strategy focuses on developing mutually beneficial agreements based on stakeholder interests including needs, desires, concerns and fears important for each party.
Additionally, this articles also use models of bargaining are important as they usually produce more satisfactory outcomes for those involved in bargaining positions. Position negotiations are based on fixed and tend to cause compromise or no agreement at all. Often, incompatible compromises meet the actual interests of the opposition. On the contrary, compromises only divide the differences between the two positions, giving half the edge of what they want. On the contrary, the integrative, creative, potential solution gives everyone what they want. There are many interests behind any one position. If the parties focus on identifying those interests, they will increase their ability to develop a win-win solution.
Based on my understanding of this article examine the possibility of a third party resolution reducing the cost of disputes by reducing the amount round alternate offers. In the presence of third parties, consultants make more powerful deals with their output, which reduces the bargaining amount. This is because, in negotiations where third-party resolutions are the right choice in the negotiations as not all results provide equal benefits both parties. Indirectly, through a third party something that we negotiate can benefit both parties in a win-win situation. Futhermore, reduction in bargaining bids can be explained by negotiator making their first offer more heavily related to their contribution when in front of a third party. This behavior is in line with the negotiator who are looking for third-party decisions in line with contributions of both party. The influence of third parties on the negotiations will depend on the rules which governs third-party mechanisms and assumptions about third parties behavior.
In addition, a lot decisions are made in negotiations under a third party to resolve the conflict between the two parties. In this study have stated the fact that the majority of consultants also report that they prefer the principle of justice that use by third party that rewards the higher contributions. For example, there is a civil dispute that can be brought to court as the case of a dispute arising whereas it maybe can settled by a third party through arbitration. So, parties in ambitious conflict should strive to improve their communication, reduce tension, control the size and volume of issues, present the existing offers, and focus on identifying the same.
Besides that, this third party is very important in solving the problems that exist in the negotiations. Typically, third parties will use the technique to generate a variety of possibilities where a third party will consider a range of solutions that can give satisfaction to both parties. Through my understanding, we better use third party institutions in resolving disputes that arise. For example, use a firm that has been created over the last decade that offers third-party resolution services for complaints about goods and services. However, each of these different institutions in the jurisdiction does not prevent us from obtaining third party resolution services because they offer low cost and easy filing in a dispute.
Overall, through the understanding of the study conducted in this article has explained that the use of third parties in resolving conflicts and problems is very important for negotiator to use them. It uses bargaining processes to ensure that both parties achieve a rewarding satisfaction to ensure win-win situation. In my opinion, this third party is very important in the negotiations to ensure that negotiated it will be beneficial to both parties. My opinion is also similar to other researchers such as Peter J. Carnevale and Dean G. Pruitt who say that most studies show that mediation is generally effective because the agreement will usually be achieved as the participants are usually satisfied with involving third parties.