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2017
GSN415: Assessment 2 – Personal Leadership Philosphy
UNDERSTANDING LEADERSHIP AND COMPLEXITY ROMIN NEJAD – N9580883
UNDERSTANDING LEADSHIP AND COMPLEXITY Assessment 2 ? Personal Leadership Philosophy
Contents
1ARTEFACT AND MY PERSONAL LEADERSHIP PHILOSPHY ……………………………………………………… 2
2DIMENSIONS OF MY PERSONAL LEADERSHIP PHILOSPHY…………………………………………………….. 4
3CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6
4INSPIRATIONAL LEADERSHIP…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
5INDIVIDUALISED CONSIDERATION …………………………………………………………………………………… 10
6INTELLECTUAL STIMULATION …………………………………………………………………………………………. 12
7REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 14
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UNDERSTANDING LEADSHIP AND COMPLEXITY Assessment 2 ? Personal Leadership Philosophy
1 ARTEFACT AND MY PERSONAL LEADERSHIP PHILOSPHY
The artefact I created to represent my persona; leadership philosophy was a poster of four people that encompass what it means to be a transformational leader. DuBrin (2015) states a transformational leader is one who brings positive and major change to the organisation. The four people I have chosen for the poster represent the four dimensions of transformational leadership highlighted by Bass (1985). These four dimensions include:
??Charismatic leadership: Charismatic leaders are ones that possess confidence in vision and a sense of mission (Dubinsky, Yammarino, & Jolson, 1995). Other aspects of the charismatic leader are they possess a high degree of communication skills, an ability to inspire trust in individuals and able to express feelings openly (DuBrin, 2015). To me Barack Obama is the epitome of a charismatic leader. In my opinion Barack Obama is one of our generations best communicators, who is able to gain the trust of millions of followers through his words alone. The quote I chose on the poster for Barack Obama is one that represents his charismatic call to action, through the expression of a vision.

??Inspirational Leadership: Inspirational leaders are able to communicate their vision with fluency and confidence (Dubinsky et al., 1995). As described by Bass (1990) the inspirational leader is one that sees a desirable future, communicates simply on how it can be reached, provides examples and sets high standards for performance. Michelle Obama is an inspirational leader that has tried to help the USA and the world achieve a desirable future, she uses simple language to communicate how this future can be reached and provides examples on what can be done. The quote I chose for my poster, is one where Michelle Obama confidently demonstrates via an example how a brighter future can be achieved by all if you apply hard work.

??Intellectual Stimulation: Leaders demonstrate intellectual stimulation by helping their followers become more creative and innovative (Bass, 1990). Such leaders seek to challenge
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UNDERSTANDING LEADSHIP AND COMPLEXITY Assessment 2 ? Personal Leadership Philosophy
employees to rethink problems, re?examine assumptions and use intelligence in their reasoning (Dubinsky et al., 1995). Steve Jobs was an excellent example of what intellectual stimulation can achieve in an organisation. Through his leadership, Apple transformed itself from a company frozen in time into a leader of innovation and creativity (Hawn, 2004). The chosen quote perfectly articulates how Steve Jobs achieved this by continuously asking his team to not admire their accomplishment but rather to look for ways to improve.

??Individualised consideration: Individual consideration is associated with giving personnel attention to employees and managing his/her individual concerns (Dubinsky et al., 1995). It is important with providing individualised attention the superior shows genuine interest in the subordinate and identification of measures to ensure development of the individual (Dubinsky et al., 1995). I associate Simon Sinek as a proponent for individual consideration. Simon Sinek has teachings on how to develop a high performing team through the provision of leadership that is targeted to the individual. The quote chosen for my artefact represents a leader who wants to help employees at an individual level.

I want to develop the four dimensions of transformational leadership defined by Bass (1985)into my future leadership philosophy. This is represented by the yellow diamond at the centre of my artefact. Geiger (2015) who in his article Four Leadership Personalities: What Color Are You?, attributes yellow as a colour representative inspirational leadership. As inspirational leadership is a key dimension of transformational leadership, I chose to colour the central diamond yellow.

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UNDERSTANDING LEADSHIP AND COMPLEXITY Assessment 2 ? Personal Leadership Philosophy
2 DIMENSIONS OF MY PERSONAL LEADERSHIP PHILOSPHY
Throughout my professional life I have strived to become a transformational leader. I feel my personal motivation of leading a team that achieves successful outcomes would be better served through me relinquishing my transactional leadership approach and replacing this with a role of pulling people together in the same direction. To date I have been more of a transactional leader focused on allocation of tasks and assessing team member against a standard. Rafferty and Griffin (2004) describe transactional leadership as an exchange of relationships between leaders and followers, such that followers receiving a reward (e.g. wages) for complying with a leader’s wishes.

Conversely, a transformational leader will build relationships with subordinates, motivate people beyond their self?interests and toward a common good for the group (DuBrin, 2015). This aspect to transformational leadership is what appeals to me, being able to transform my team from a managed team to a high performing lead team. Numerous studies have been published that found transformational leadership is associated with higher performance at both a subordinate and an organisational level (Schaubroeck, Lam, ; Cha, 2007).

Working in the engineering consultancy industry my company is engaged to assess problems and identify solutions. The problems we solve are nearly always unique and require bespoke solutions. However, the leadership style I generally adopt remains stagnant and involves identifying what we are trying to do, delegation of actions to achieve the what, clarifying roles for the individuals and identifying standards for those actions (e.g. timeframes, quality or budget). This generic approach does little to motivate the efficacy of the team to innovate unique solutions to the unique problems we are presented with.

This report will examine the four dimensions of transformational leadership described by Bass (1985). Comparing my leadership philosophy with Bass’ transformation leadership model will enable me to identify the skills needed for me to become the leader I want to be. Table 1 provides an analysis of my current leadership style against the dimensions of personal leadership philosophy.

Table 1: Analysis of the dimensions of transformational leadership vs my current leadership style
Dimension Relevance to my PLP Comparison with my Current
Leadership Style Theory used to help
assess my PLP
Charismatic
leadership As described by Rafferty and Griffin (2004), using charisma to clearly articulating a vision should be able to enhance the focus and purpose of my teams. I currently use transactional approaches to detail actions required to achieve an outcome. I spend little time considering or articulating a vision. Cynefin
Inspirational
Leadership Using inspirational appeals and emotions should enable me to arouse subordinate motivations to go beyond self? interest and achieve positive outcomes for the team
(DuBrin, 2015). My leadership philosophy is focused on my subordinates achieving a pre? defined objective. I don’t use any emotive language to increase the engagement with my subordinates. Level 5 Leadership
Individualised
Consideration By implementing behaviour as a leader that displays genuine concern for subordinates and taking into account their individual needs I should be able to gain the loyalty, respect Reflective ‘I think’ I am genuinely supportive of my subordinates and always try to take into account their individual needs. However I’m not sure if my supportive leadership style is consistent with the transformational Emotional Intelligence
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UNDERSTANDING LEADSHIP AND COMPLEXITY Assessment 2 ? Personal Leadership Philosophy
Dimension Relevance to my PLP Comparison with my Current
Leadership Style Theory used to help
assess my PLP
and trust of group members
(DuBrin, 2015). leadership model or is well received by
my subordinates. Intellectual
stimulation Through adopting practices described by Bass (1985) I want to be able to enhance my team’s awareness of a problems, stir their imagination and enable them to think
about problems in new ways. As my leadership style is focused on achieving a result or solution, I rarely challenge my team to ideate or improve on a prototype. In the past this may have limited the effectiveness of the problem solving undertaken by my team. Design Thinking
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252222046786800053682905801995Current Leadership Style
00Current Leadership Style

UNDERSTANDING LEADSHIP AND COMPLEXITY Assessment 2 ? Personal Leadership Philosophy
3 CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP
“We are not entitled to success we have to earn it”
Barack Obama in his speech to the DNC (2012)
Bass (1985) described charisma as the single most important component in transformational leadership. Charisma is one of the key elements for the leader to connect with his team and help the team to connect with their vision (Bass, 1985). Much of the impact of charisma is based on the positive emotive effect the charismatic leader can trigger in his group (DuBrin, 2015).

Throughout my career I have never considered myself to have qualities akin to charismatic leadership. I am generally very subdued in my approach when talking to a team. This does not align with my view of a charismatic leader as one who demonstrates confidence, optimism, expressive gestures, a little humour and lots of passion passion. Whereas when I talk with my team I feel I demonstrate calm temperament, with little humour, little passion and a monotone voice.

When I compare the projects I have lead a team on over the last 12 months against the Cynefin model, I identify that most of my problems are within the complicated domain (Figure 1). However, the transactional approach to leadership I have adopted would be more suited to the simple domain, with repetitive problems.

Current Problems
Figure 1: Cynefin model (Snowden, 2000)
If I want my teams to innovate, ideate and exceed expectations I need to recognise my leadership style is not suited to the type of problems I am dealing with and implement leadership behaviours that enable the team to sense, analyse and respond. Charismatic leadership is one aspect of the leadership style needed for complicated problems that can enable me to motivate and empower the team. However I recognise charisma alone will not be sufficient for me to achieve true transformational leadership and I need to combine these skills with those with the remaining dimensions to achieve my PLP.

Whilst I may not have the overarching skills to be as charismatic as a Barack Obama, I may be able to exert some charismatic qualities by understanding the elements of charisma and implementing approaches to achieve these elements. A common thread within the literature is that articulation of
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UNDERSTANDING LEADSHIP AND COMPLEXITY Assessment 2 ? Personal Leadership Philosophy
a vision is an important element to charismatic leadership. Through this articulation I should be able to enhance my team’s goal, task focus, clarity and values (Rafferty & Griffin, 2004). Additionally, Shamir, House, and Arthur (1993) describe two key behaviours that can help to activate charismatic leadership:
?Role Modelling: Visceral learning can happen when followers observe the leader’s
behaviour, emotional reactions, values, aspirations and preferences. Through these observations the leader can become a representative character that helps followers identify the kinds of traits, values, behaviours required for the problem.

?Frame alignment: Initiating communicative processes that link present issues with past
experiences or events will help to mobilise followers to action. Frame alignment also involves recruiting followers with a shared vision and values, helping to provide the team with a sense of identity from membership within the group.

With consideration to these behaviours I have developed a plan to help me achieve aspects of a charismatic leadership style consistent with the Bass (1995) transformation leadership model.

Goal 1: To develop charismatic leadership behaviours that motivate my team to share my values and vision for the
project and problems.

Component Actions
Specific Prior to commencing a new project I will reflect on my aspirations and preferences for the project outcome and document these on a project brief. I will communicate these to the team at a project kick? off meeting by linking the aspiration with past project examples that had not achieved these aspirations. I will ask for feedback on the aspiration and discuss with the group the process we will adopt to work towards the aspiration. At the conclusion of the project I will compare the outcome of the project with my original aspirations and assess whether these had been achieved. The project team will be involved in this evaluation and we will also collectively discuss and identify learnings to be used on the next project.

Measurable 90% of my projects will achieve the aspiration defined at the start of the project.

Achievable 1.Every project has a project brief that details my considered aspirations.

2.Every project has a project kick?off meeting, with minutes documented detailing the project
aspirations and discussions on process.

3.Over the course of the project, evaluate progress against the aspiration defined at the start of
the project. If required realign the project team through active communication and frame alignment.

4.Following every project, a documented evaluation of the aspiration being achieved or not is
undertaken with the project team.

5.Learnings from the conclusion of the project are documented and disseminated to the project
team.

Relevant By understanding my vision for the project early and through better communication of the aspiration, the project team should have a greater motivation to achieve a successful outcome. By evaluating the project based on aspirations, the success measures of the project will change and the group should adapt innovating thinking that achieves these success measures.

Time The plan will be implemented with every project starting December 2017.

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4 INSPIRATIONAL LEADERSHIP
“The only limit to the height of your achievements is the reach of your dreams and your willingness to
work hard for them”
Michelle Obama in her speech to the DNC (2008)
Bass (1985) states there is a clear link between charismatic and inspiration leadership, whereby charismatic leaders will use inspirational appeals to arouse motivation in followers. Bass (1985) also stated that both charismatic and inspirational leadership are displayed when a leader communicates a desirable future, articulates how it can be achieved, shows determination and confidence. Whilst I agree with Bass’s linkage between the two dimensions of transformational leadership, I think a clear distinction can be made by understanding inspiration is using intellect and emotions to motivate change, whereas charisma is used as a tool to build a connection with one’s followers.

A reoccurring description in the literature on inspirational leadership is the use of oral communication to motivate and arouse followers emotions (Rafferty ; Griffin, 2004). Specifically, Piccolo and Colquitt (2006) describe inspirational motivation as the degree leaders articulate vision that are appealing to followers. To be a transformational leader you need to be able to arouse motivation by getting buy?in from your followers on the vision for the project. This cannot be achieved without clear and positive communication. In addition to using emotions, inspirational leaders may also use rhetorical techniques including metephors, analogies or language styles to ensure the profound impact of communicating their vision (Conger, 1991).

Rafferty and Griffin (2004) in their study of transformational leadership, identified through the use of inspiration leadership techniques followers had a greater capacity to carry out a range of proactive and integrative tasks. Therefore, an effective inspiration leader will be able to achieve greater integration within the team and ultimately a more effective team.

Despite always having a desire to motivate my team to buy into my vision, being inspirational is an aspect of leadership that has always challenged me. Having an analytical mind, I find it difficult to connect emotions with the purpose of the project. As I mentioned earlier my main focus in leadership is to divide tasks among the team and set standards. Reflecting on myself, I’ve always felt that appealing to a persons emotions to arouse motivation is more a salespersons technique, which I perceive as disingenuous.

When I compare myself with the Level 5 leadership model (Figure 2) developed by Collins (2007), I would classify myself currently being a Level 3 Competent Leader. To be a minimum Level 4 leader I would need to improve my ability to set clear and compelling visions to stimulate higher performance standards. One way I can achieve this is through greater focus on my inspirational leadership qualities.

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UNDERSTANDING LEADSHIP AND COMPLEXITY Assessment 2 ? Personal Leadership Philosophy
Figure 2: Level 5 leadership (Collins, 2007)
In addition to using emotions, inspirational leaders may also use rhetorical techniques including metephors, analogies or language styles to ensure the profound impact of communicating their vision (Conger, 1991). I believe using metaphors and analogies may be a simple way for me explain a vision and help me arouse motivation of my followers. Conger (1991) explains using metetaphors and analogy will help the leader to connect problem with a vision and create a vivid image for the listener. The reason these techniques are so effective in inspiring followers, is they require the listener to adopt their intellectual mind to decipher what the message means to them on a visual, emotional or cognitive level (Conger, 1991).

I have developed a plan to help me utilise effective metaphors and analogies when explaining my vision and ultimately improve my inspirational leadership qualities.

Goal 2: To develop inspirational leadership qualities through the use of metaphors and analogies to express my vision
for a project.

Component Actions
Specific Prior to commencing a new project identify the ‘why’ we are doing the project, rather than the ‘what’ we are doing. For example, if it is a project to design a landfill (i.e. the what), reflect on this and maybe reframe this to be “we are building the infrastructure that will enable our city to prosper for the next 5 years and ensure the waste we bury today does not become a incumbrance on our future generations”. Describe this why to the team using a series of metaphors and analogies such as “we are the starting block for this great project”, “lets show our client why we are the Tesla of engineering”, “We don’t just engineer, we ideate and solve”.

Measurable After the project ask each team member to give a ranking of 1 to 10 on:
?How much they enjoyed delivering the project?
?How motivated they felt to succeed?
?How close we came to achieve the clients requirements?
The aim is to achieve an average ranking of 8 or above on my projects.

Achievable 1.Every project has a project kick?off meeting where I detail the ‘why’ we are doing the project.

2.Following every project, a undertake sit down with individual team members to obtain their
rankings out of 10.

3.Document the ranking on a spreadsheet.

Relevant By having my team understand the why we are doing something, I think I should be able to inspire the team to self?motivate to achieve greater outcomes. Previously my focus on the what we are doing only resulted in team members doing the bare minimum to complete the task. Reframing the project to the why means allows team members the freedom to think out of the box and identify innovative solutions.

Time The plan will be implemented with every project starting December 2017.

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UNDERSTANDING LEADSHIP AND COMPLEXITY Assessment 2 ? Personal Leadership Philosophy
5 INDIVIDUALISED CONSIDERATION
“Leadership is not about being in charge, leadership is about taking care of those in your charge”
Simon Sinek, twitter post 2015
Bass (1985) surmised individualised consideration occurs when a leader displays individualised attention to their followers. Rafferty and Griffin (2004) expanded on this and theorised individualised consideration involves a leader demonstrates respect and shows genuine concern for their followers’ needs and feelings.

Barling, Slater, and Kevin Kelloway (2000) identified effective leaders must have a high degree of emotional intelligence to realise their followers’ needs and act accordingly. Leaders demonstrating a high emotional intelligence are more likely to empathise with their followers and manifest effective individualised consideration (Barling et al., 2000).

Comparing my emotional intelligence with the emotional intelligence management framework (Figure 3) I concluded the following:
?I think I have a high self?awareness and good ability to recognise moods, emotions. I also
tend to understand my effect on others.

?I think I have a high social awareness. I am generally conscious of understanding the
emotional makeup of others and I do adapt my approach to people based on their
emotional reactions.

?I am generally passive and not particularly emotive. Therefore, I have little trouble
controlling disruptive impulses or moods.

?Working in consultancy has required me to build strong relationships with my clients,
colleagues and team. I generally have no issue building rapport with my colleagues and clients.

Figure 3: Emotional intelligence management framework (Goleman, Boyatzis, & McKee, 2013)
Whilst the emotional intelligence management framework is not a definitive measure of emotional intelligence, I generally feel confident in my approach to my suborbinates and how I adopt this in my
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UNDERSTANDING LEADSHIP AND COMPLEXITY Assessment 2 ? Personal Leadership Philosophy
leadership style. During the course of any project I manage, I consistently will check?in with individuals and offer support. Where I might identify an individual struggling with their task, I will offer support and assistance to facilitate the completion of the tasks. I am also very conscious of directing any positive praise from Clients or upper management to my team to ensure they feel the recognition for their hard work. Based on this I did not think it necessary to develop a plan to progress this dimension of my transformational leadership ambitions.

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UNDERSTANDING LEADSHIP AND COMPLEXITY Assessment 2 ? Personal Leadership Philosophy
6 INTELLECTUAL STIMULATION
“Let’s go invent tomorrow rather than worrying about what happened yesterday”
Steve Job, D5 Conference Interview 2007
Intellectual stimulation is often referred to as the most underdeveloped dimension of transformational leadership in the modern leader (Rafferty & Griffin, 2004). Intellectual stimulation is the degree that the leader challenges assumptions, take risks and solicit followers (Judge &
Piccolo, 2004). Through effective intellectual stimulation leaders seek to foster creativity and stress rethinking, re?examination of assumptions and use of intelligence to support decision making (Dubinsky et al., 1995).

DuBrin (2015) states an effective tactic to increasing creativity is carefully matching the right people to the right assignments. The level of engagement by followers will be dependent on the challenge of the assignment, too little challenge will lead to boredom and too much challenge may lead to feelings of anxiety or being overwhelmed (DuBrin, 2015). To do this effectively it is important the leader understands the individual’s needs (i.e. individualised consideration). Therefore, considering my own strength in the individualised consideration dimension I should be able to leverage this to stimulate my team to think about the problem in new ways.

When I compare the intellectual stimulation dimension with the design thinking approaches I personally see many synergies in the processes. One such model I recently learnt about in an MBA course is the Stanford D?School design thinking model (Figure 4).

Figure 4: Stanford D?School design thinking process
The D?School design thinking processes is an iterative process that focuses on human centred design. The process is designed to focus on the vision for the problem and continually ideate, test and redesign, until an optimal solution is found. Similar to the intellectual stimulation dimension, this design thinking approach continually aims to challenge the team to refine and improve the solution. The design thinking process also shares many synergies with the problem?solving process identified as part of the Cynefin Framework (Figure 1) for complex problems which recommended an iterative problem solving process in sense, analyse and respond.

Traditionally engineers have not adopted a design thinking approach to problem solving and rather have utilised more linear analytical methods. Likewise as an engineer I have not ventured far from the analytical approaches and my leadership style has reflected this. My approach to problem solving with my team is identify a solution and then develop actions to realise this solution. My process does not challenge any creative thought processes amongst my team or challenge the
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accepted solution. Through my MBA studies I have recognised the benefits of design thinking approaches, my challenge has been how to implement such processes in an engineering consultancy with tight project budgets unable to sustain ideation and refinement.

Notwithstanding the above I do want to develop the skills needed to be able to adopt the design thinking elements to certain projects. I think through learning of project management systems such as agile I may be able to build hybrid processes that combine the efficiency of analytical approaches with the intellectual stimulation of design thinking approaches.

Goal 3: Incorporate design thinking models into the delivery of engineering design projects.

Component Actions
Specific Develop design thinking approaches that align to engineering projects and enable me to foster creativity, innovation and collaboration amongst my team. Undertake an agile project management training course to enable me to understand how to achieve collaboration within my project team in an iterative manner to reduce design inefficiency and bring focus to specific elements within each sprint.

Measurable Any project where the solution is not specified, an ideation process will be adopted.

Achievable 1.Undertake a agile project management course.

2.Develop a design thinking process suitable for engineering projects.

3.Tender on a project where a design thinking process would be suitable for the delivery of
the project.

4.Implement the design thinking process with the project delivery team.

Relevant Leading with design thinking processes will enable me to develop innovating thinking within my teams. Through this innovation, my team will build recognition as designing out of the box solutions for our clients.

Time Over the next 12 months implement a design thinking process on 2 projects.

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7 REFERENCES
Barling, J., Slater, F., ; Kevin Kelloway, E. (2000). Transformational leadership and emotional intelligence: An exploratory study. Leadership ; Organization Development Journal, 21(3), 157?161.

Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership: Good, better, best. Organizational Dynamics, 13(3), 26?40.

Bass, B. M. (1990). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics, 18(3), 19?31.

Collins, J. (2007). Level 5 leadership. The Jossey?Bass reader on educational leadership, 2, 27?50. Conger, J. A. (1991). Inspiring others: The language of leadership. The executive, 5(1), 31?45. Dubinsky, A. J., Yammarino, F. J., ; Jolson, M. A. (1995). An examination of linkages between
personal characteristics and dimensions of transformational leadership. Journal of Business and Psychology, 9(3), 315?335.

DuBrin, A. J. (2015). Leadership: Research findings, practice, and skills: Nelson Education.

Geiger, E. (2015). Four Leadership Personalities: What Color Are You?
Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R. E., ; McKee, A. (2013). Primal leadership: Unleashing the power of emotional intelligence: Harvard Business Press.

Hawn, C. (2004). If he’s so smart… Steve Jobs, Apple, and the limits of innovation. Fast Company, 78(1), 35?44.

Judge, T. A., & Piccolo, R. F. (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership: a meta?analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of applied psychology, 89(5), 755.

Piccolo, R. F., & Colquitt, J. A. (2006). Transformational leadership and job behaviors: The mediating role of core job characteristics. Academy of Management journal, 49(2), 327?340.

Rafferty, A. E., & Griffin, M. A. (2004). Dimensions of transformational leadership: Conceptual and empirical extensions. The leadership quarterly, 15(3), 329?354.

Schaubroeck, J., Lam, S. S., & Cha, S. E. (2007). Embracing transformational leadership: team values and the impact of leader behavior on team performance. Journal of applied psychology, 92(4), 1020.

Shamir, B., House, R. J., & Arthur, M. B. (1993). The motivational effects of charismatic leadership: A self?concept based theory. Organization science, 4(4), 577?594.

Snowden, D. (2000). Cynefin, a sense of time and place: an ecological approach to sense making and learning in formal and informal communities.

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