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BACHELOR 2017
How Nonprofit Organizations In Germany Successfully Retain Their Volunteers
Empirical Research of Volunteer Retention Tools
in Human Resource Management
Jonas Chen

THESIS
How Nonprofit Organizations In Germany Successfully Retain Their Volunteers –
Empirical Research of Volunteer Retention Tools in Human Resource Management
Submitted by
Jonas Chen
Department of Business Administration
In partial fulfillment of the requirements
For the Degree of Bachelor of Engineering
Technische Hochschule Nürnberg Georg Simon Ohm
Nuremberg, Bavaria
Summer 2017
Advisor: Prof. Dr. Raphael Verstege
Co-Advisor: Prof. Dr. Frank Ebinger
AbstractHow do nonprofit organizations successfully retain their volunteers? Retention is a relatively unexplored topic in Human Resources especially in the field of volunteers since there is not much research about it. Volunteer retention can be very influential for many stakeholders, for instance nonprofit and for-profit organizations. The thesis will introduce a theoretical framework about nonprofit organizations, retention and volunteers. Afterwards, a concept of volunteer retention management is developed which is based on existing employee and volunteer retention tools. Eventually, the empirical research finds out significant evidence about effective tools, motives and predictions for the success of volunteer retention.

Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u Abstract PAGEREF _Toc490837429 h IList of Figures PAGEREF _Toc490837430 h VList of Tables PAGEREF _Toc490837431 h VI1.Introduction PAGEREF _Toc490837432 h 11.1.Nonprofit Organization PAGEREF _Toc490837433 h 11.1.1.Economic relevance PAGEREF _Toc490837434 h 21.1.2.Definition PAGEREF _Toc490837435 h 31.1.3.Characteristics PAGEREF _Toc490837436 h 41.2.Retention PAGEREF _Toc490837437 h 51.2.1.Nonprofit relevance PAGEREF _Toc490837438 h 61.2.2.Definition PAGEREF _Toc490837439 h 61.3.Volunteer PAGEREF _Toc490837440 h 71.3.1.International and historical relevance PAGEREF _Toc490837441 h 71.3.2.Definition PAGEREF _Toc490837442 h 82.Concept of volunteer retention PAGEREF _Toc490837443 h 102.1.Motives PAGEREF _Toc490837444 h 102.1.1.Volunteer Functions Inventory PAGEREF _Toc490837445 h 112.1.2.Volunteer motivation in Germany PAGEREF _Toc490837446 h 122.1.3.Hygiene factors PAGEREF _Toc490837447 h 132.2.Retention tools PAGEREF _Toc490837448 h 132.2.1.Financial relevance PAGEREF _Toc490837449 h 142.2.2.Volunteer Orientation PAGEREF _Toc490837450 h 152.2.3.Volunteer Compensation PAGEREF _Toc490837451 h 152.2.4.Volunteer Relations PAGEREF _Toc490837452 h 162.2.5.Volunteer Care PAGEREF _Toc490837453 h 172.2.6.Volunteer Development PAGEREF _Toc490837454 h 182.2.7.Volunteer Award PAGEREF _Toc490837455 h 202.2.8.Volunteer Communication PAGEREF _Toc490837456 h 212.2.9.Others factors PAGEREF _Toc490837457 h 222.3.Retention indicators PAGEREF _Toc490837458 h 222.3.1.Turnover rate PAGEREF _Toc490837459 h 222.3.2.Duration of volunteering PAGEREF _Toc490837460 h 232.3.3.Voluntary workload PAGEREF _Toc490837461 h 232.3.4.Risk of leaving PAGEREF _Toc490837462 h 243.Empirical research PAGEREF _Toc490837463 h 253.1.Research goal PAGEREF _Toc490837464 h 263.2.Research limitation PAGEREF _Toc490837465 h 273.3.Data collection PAGEREF _Toc490837466 h 273.3.1.Gatekeepers: NPO PAGEREF _Toc490837467 h 283.3.2.Sample of NPOs PAGEREF _Toc490837468 h 303.3.3.Volunteer Survey PAGEREF _Toc490837469 h 313.4.Data analysis PAGEREF _Toc490837470 h 323.4.1.Data preparation PAGEREF _Toc490837471 h 333.4.2.Descriptive analysis PAGEREF _Toc490837472 h 353.4.3.Factor analysis PAGEREF _Toc490837473 h 383.4.4.What are the total effects of factors on the degree of retention? PAGEREF _Toc490837474 h 413.4.5.Analyzing differences between groups PAGEREF _Toc490837475 h 464.Results & Outlook PAGEREF _Toc490837476 h 51References PAGEREF _Toc490837477 h 53Appendices PAGEREF _Toc490837478 h 60Appendix A – Items of motive functions in the VFI in English and German PAGEREF _Toc490837479 h 60Appendix B – Request Mail PAGEREF _Toc490837480 h 63Appendix C – Invitation Mail PAGEREF _Toc490837481 h 65Appendix D – List of international nonprofit organizations PAGEREF _Toc490837482 h 66Appendix E – Data collection statistics PAGEREF _Toc490837483 h 70Appendix F – Data collection history PAGEREF _Toc490837484 h 70Appendix G – Item description of the volunteer survey PAGEREF _Toc490837485 h 71
List of Figures TOC h z c “Figure” Figure 1: Systematic introduction of volunteer retention in nonprofit organizations (NPOs) PAGEREF _Toc490837486 h 1Figure 2: MRT Interference – An approach to volunteer retention PAGEREF _Toc490837487 h 10Figure 3: Overall summary of missing values PAGEREF _Toc490837488 h 34Figure 4: Volunteers and their organization PAGEREF _Toc490837489 h 35Figure 5: Age distribution of volunteers PAGEREF _Toc490837490 h 36Figure 6: Proportion of different gender PAGEREF _Toc490837491 h 37Figure 7: Volunteers and their engagement duration PAGEREF _Toc490837492 h 37Figure 8: Volunteers and their workload per week PAGEREF _Toc490837493 h 38Figure 9: Mean RET comparison between IDs PAGEREF _Toc490837494 h 47Figure 10: Mean RET comparison between age groups PAGEREF _Toc490837495 h 48Figure 11: Mean RET comparison between gender groups PAGEREF _Toc490837496 h 48Figure 12: Mean RET comparison between engagement duration groups PAGEREF _Toc490837497 h 49Figure 13: Mean RET comparison between workload groups PAGEREF _Toc490837498 h 50Figure 14: Data collection history PAGEREF _Toc490837499 h 70
List of Tables TOC h z c “Table” Table 1: Motive functions of VFI PAGEREF _Toc490837500 h 11Table 2: Motivating and hygiene factors PAGEREF _Toc490837501 h 13Table 3: Summary of retention tools PAGEREF _Toc490837502 h 14Table 4: General information about data collection and analysis PAGEREF _Toc490837503 h 25Table 5: Possible benefits for stakeholders PAGEREF _Toc490837504 h 26Table 6: Overview of NPO survey PAGEREF _Toc490837505 h 28Table 7: Overview of the volunteer survey PAGEREF _Toc490837506 h 32Table 8: The TOP 10 missing variables PAGEREF _Toc490837507 h 34Table 9: Invalid items for forming motives functions PAGEREF _Toc490837508 h 39Table 10: The seven motive components derived from multiple factor analysis PAGEREF _Toc490837509 h 39Table 11: The four tool components derived from multiple factor analysis PAGEREF _Toc490837510 h 40Table 12: Summary of all derived factors PAGEREF _Toc490837511 h 41Table 13: Significant correlations with the degree of retention PAGEREF _Toc490837512 h 42Table 14: Regression models for the degree of retention PAGEREF _Toc490837513 h 42Table 15: Factor correlations with T_ORI2 PAGEREF _Toc490837514 h 43Table 16: Factor correlations with V_UND2 PAGEREF _Toc490837515 h 43Table 17: Regression models for T_ORI2 PAGEREF _Toc490837516 h 44Table 18: Regression models for V_UND2 PAGEREF _Toc490837517 h 44Table 19: Summary of factor´s total effects on the degree of retention PAGEREF _Toc490837518 h 45Table 20: Items of motive functions in the VFI in English and German PAGEREF _Toc490837519 h 60Table 21: List of international nonprofit organizations PAGEREF _Toc490837520 h 66Table 22: Data collection statistics PAGEREF _Toc490837521 h 70Table 23: Item description of the volunteer survey PAGEREF _Toc490837522 h 71
IntroductionTheoretical statements and the real picture of the world can diverge or match. Empirical research is a scientific method to confirm hypotheses in a systematic way. The following paragraphs introduce the theoretical framework about the following aspects:
Relevance, characteristics and definition of Nonprofit Organizations (NPO)
Retention in human resource management (HRM)
Definition of volunteers
Afterwards, a concept of volunteer retention is stated which, eventually, is analyzed by an empirical research conducted to extract and confirm specific relationships and hypotheses.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1: Systematic introduction of volunteer retention in nonprofit organizations (NPOs)Nonprofit OrganizationAny organizations follow certain goals and require specific functions in order to achieve them more effectively. In business, many engage in hundreds, even thousands, of activities in the process of converting inputs to outputs. In general, these activities can be classified as either primary or support activities, such as marketing, logistics, or Human Resources Management (HRM) that all organizations undertake in some form ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER bb5fa9ac-5d12-489c-ab95-2ac208e9f598 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(Porter 1985, pp 11–15). Factors such as the organization type may have a significant impact on activities within the value chain that are described in the following paragraphs.

Economic relevanceThe nonprofit sector is growing and becoming a significant contributor to the performance of countries worldwide revolutionizing traditional welfare policies ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 7b1eeb48-34b7-401a-a09b-04360fd34376 PFBsYWNlaG9sZGVyPg0KICA8QWRkSW5WZXJzaW9uPjUuNS4wLjE8L0FkZEluVmVyc2lvbj4NCiAgPElkPjdiMWVlYjQ4LTM0YjctNDAxYS1hMDliLTA0MzYwZmQzNDM3NjwvSWQ+DQogIDxFbnRyaWVzPg0KICAgIDxFbnRyeT4NCiAgICAgIDxBc3NvY2lhdGVXaXRoS25vd2xlZGdlSXRlbUlkPmE5ZjMwOTQyLTkzMTktNGY2Yy04ZTJkLTUxYTRlYTVkNWRkNTwvQXNzb2NpYXRlV2l0aEtub3dsZWRnZUl0ZW1JZD4NCiAgICAgIDxJZD5hOThhZWQ2ZC1kZjc1LTQ2MjYtOGQzNi1hMDBiMGVhMTEwYjM8L0lkPg0KICAgICAgPFBhZ2VSYW5nZT48IVtDREFUQVs8c3A+DQogIDxuPjQ8L24+DQogIDxpbj50cnVlPC9pbj4NCiAgPG9zPjQ8L29zPg0KICA8cHM+NDwvcHM+DQo8L3NwPg0KPGVwPg0KICA8bj41PC9uPg0KICA8aW4+dHJ1ZTwvaW4+DQogIDxvcz41PC9vcz4NCiAgPHBzPjU8L3BzPg0KPC9lcD4NCjxvcz40LTU8L29zPl1dPjwvUGFnZVJhbmdlPg0KICAgICAgPEVuZFBhZ2U+NTwvRW5kUGFnZT4NCiAgICAgIDxTdGFydFBhZ2U+NDwvU3RhcnRQYWdlPg0KICAgICAgPE51bWVyYWxTeXN0ZW0+QXJhYmljPC9OdW1lcmFsU3lzdGVtPg0KICAgICAgPE51bWJlcmluZ1R5cGU+UGFnZTwvTnVtYmVyaW5nVHlwZT4NCiAgICAgIDxRdW90YXRpb25UeXBlPkluZGlyZWN0UXVvdGF0aW9uPC9RdW90YXRpb25UeXBlPg0KICAgICAgPFJlZmVyZW5jZUlkPmQ5ZjcwMjVlLTI5MDItNDdhZi1hMmYzLTc4MmI2NDI0MWYzYjwvUmVmZXJlbmNlSWQ+DQogICAgICA8UmFuZ2U+DQogICAgICAgIDxTdGFydD4wPC9TdGFydD4NCiAgICAgICAgPExlbmd0aD4yMzwvTGVuZ3RoPg0KICAgICAgPC9SYW5nZT4NCiAgICAgIDxSZWZlcmVuY2U+DQogICAgICAgIDxSZWZlcmVuY2VUeXBlSWQ+Qm9vazwvUmVmZXJlbmNlVHlwZUlkPg0KICAgICAgICA8QXV0aG9ycz4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8UGVyc29uPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPEZpcnN0TmFtZT5MZXN0ZXI8L0ZpcnN0TmFtZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxMYXN0TmFtZT5TYWxhbW9uPC9MYXN0TmFtZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxNaWRkbGVOYW1lPk0uPC9NaWRkbGVOYW1lPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPFNleD5NYWxlPC9TZXg+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9QZXJzb24+DQogICAgICAgIDwvQXV0aG9ycz4NCiAgICAgICAgPElkPmQ5ZjcwMjVlLTI5MDItNDdhZi1hMmYzLTc4MmI2NDI0MWYzYjwvSWQ+DQogICAgICAgIDxJc2JuPjEtODg2MzMzLTQyLTQ8L0lzYm4+DQogICAgICAgIDxQbGFjZU9mUHVibGljYXRpb24+Qmxvb21maWVsZCwgQ29ubi48L1BsYWNlT2ZQdWJsaWNhdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgPFB1Ymxpc2hlcnM+DQogICAgICAgICAgPFB1Ymxpc2hlcj4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxOYW1lPkt1bWFyaWFuPC9OYW1lPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDwvUHVibGlzaGVyPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDxQdWJsaXNoZXI+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TmFtZT5Mb25kb24gOiAgIEV1cm9zcGFuPC9OYW1lPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDwvUHVibGlzaGVyPg0KICAgICAgICA8L1B1Ymxpc2hlcnM+DQogICAgICAgIDxQcmljZT7CozI5Ljk1PC9QcmljZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPFNlcXVlbmNlTnVtYmVyPjEyPC9TZXF1ZW5jZU51bWJlcj4NCiAgICAgICAgPFNob3J0VGl0bGU+U2FsYW1vbiAxOTk5LSDigJMgR2xvYmFsIGNpdmlsIHNvY2lldHk8L1Nob3J0VGl0bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxTb3VyY2VPZkJpYmxpb2dyYXBoaWNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbj5UaGUgQnJpdGlzaCBMaWJyYXJ5PC9Tb3VyY2VPZkJpYmxpb2dyYXBoaWNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgPFN1YnRpdGxlPkRpbWVuc2lvbnMgb2YgdGhlIG5vbnByb2ZpdCBzZWN0b3IgLyAgIExlc3RlciBNLiBTYWxhbW9uIC4uLiBbZXQgYWwuXTwvU3VidGl0bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxUaXRsZT5HbG9iYWwgY2l2aWwgc29jaWV0eTwvVGl0bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxZZWFyPjE5OTktPC9ZZWFyPg0KICAgICAgPC9SZWZlcmVuY2U+DQogICAgPC9FbnRyeT4NCiAgPC9FbnRyaWVzPg0KICA8VGV4dD4oU2FsYW1vbiAxOTk5LSwgcHAgNOKAkzUpPC9UZXh0Pg0KICA8VGV4dFVuaXRzPg0KICAgIDxUZXh0VW5pdD4NCiAgICAgIDxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+DQogICAgICA8Rm9udE5hbWUgLz4NCiAgICAgIDxGb250U3R5bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+DQogICAgICAgIDxOYW1lIC8+DQogICAgICA8L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT4NCiAgICAgIDxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT4NCiAgICAgIDxUZXh0PihTYWxhbW9uIDE5OTktLCBwcCA04oCTNSk8L1RleHQ+DQogICAgPC9UZXh0VW5pdD4NCiAgPC9UZXh0VW5pdHM+DQo8L1BsYWNlaG9sZGVyPg==(Salamon 1999-, pp 4–5). Economists have been measuring the nations’ well-being by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for over 70 years. However, it has its limitations. For example, it does not take account of environmental degradation and excludes unpaid services such as volunteering and housework. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER dc03fad7-f0dd-4d6e-a65c-7b5937270bf3 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The Economist online (2012) reported about new indicators being developed and used to reflect the activities inside a country in an objective manner. According to ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER a725ff8f-d7f0-4e80-af25-236c67048f3d 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Rogers (2015), the Social Progress Index examines three different component parts of a country’s progress of social and environmental terms, including society’s ability to meet the basic needs of its citizens like water, sanitation, shelter and basic medical care. The next tier measures a society’s ability, to both sustain itself and provide systems and infrastructure for aspects like secondary schools, access to the internet and mobile tools. The third tier measures the level of opportunity and upward mobility a society offers to provide the conditions conducive to personal rights, freedom of speech, tolerance, inclusion and access to advanced tertiary education. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 625738dd-ee63-4c6b-8565-f90a615d8385 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Myers (2016) also argued that measuring economic growth alone is not enough. The World Bank Chief Economist Joseph Stiglitz ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 53fcc837-33b7-474a-9786-f0a020278118 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(1998) had already stated that the policies advanced by the Washington consensus are hardly complete and sometimes misguided. It is not just economic policies and human capital but the quality of a country´s institutions that determine economic outcomes. More recently, Michael E. Porter emphasized that long-term societal success is created by inclusive growth where economic success and social progress occur at the same time ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER fb9bbe98-bc10-48a7-9180-9b75a1912f39 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(Social Progress Imperative 2015). “On 1 January 2016, the world officially began implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development … that will build on the success of the Millenium Development Goals and ensure sustainable social and economic progress worldwide” ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 6c27efd4-04c2-4d2e-ad9e-4ab1c5321540 PFBsYWNlaG9sZGVyPg0KICA8QWRkSW5WZXJzaW9uPjUuNS4wLjE8L0FkZEluVmVyc2lvbj4NCiAgPElkPjZjMjdlZmQ0LTA0YzItNGQyZS1hZDllLTRhYjFjNTMyMTU0MDwvSWQ+DQogIDxFbnRyaWVzPg0KICAgIDxFbnRyeT4NCiAgICAgIDxBc3NvY2lhdGVXaXRoS25vd2xlZGdlSXRlbUlkPmEzZDM3YTdiLWEyZmYtNGVmMC1iNTYzLTYzMDAxZWY2NjM5MTwvQXNzb2NpYXRlV2l0aEtub3dsZWRnZUl0ZW1JZD4NCiAgICAgIDxJZD5kNmNlODMxMS02M2E1LTRiNDMtYWZkNy01ZDZmYmI3YWUxOWQ8L0lkPg0KICAgICAgPFBhZ2VSYW5nZT48IVtDREFUQVs8c3A+DQogIDxuPjI8L24+DQogIDxpbj50cnVlPC9pbj4NCiAgPG9zPjI8L29zPg0KICA8cHM+MjwvcHM+DQo8L3NwPg0KPG9zPjI8L29zPl1dPjwvUGFnZVJhbmdlPg0KICAgICAgPFN0YXJ0UGFnZT4yPC9TdGFydFBhZ2U+DQogICAgICA8TnVtZXJhbFN5c3RlbT5BcmFiaWM8L051bWVyYWxTeXN0ZW0+DQogICAgICA8TnVtYmVyaW5nVHlwZT5QYWdlPC9OdW1iZXJpbmdUeXBlPg0KICAgICAgPFF1b3RhdGlvblR5cGU+RGlyZWN0UXVvdGF0aW9uPC9RdW90YXRpb25UeXBlPg0KICAgICAgPFJlZmVyZW5jZUlkPjBlMDU4MGU2LWQ5ZjctNGY2MC05NjJkLWNiNzM5OWM2MDMwNzwvUmVmZXJlbmNlSWQ+DQogICAgICA8UmFuZ2U+DQogICAgICAgIDxTdGFydD4wPC9TdGFydD4NCiAgICAgICAgPExlbmd0aD4yNjwvTGVuZ3RoPg0KICAgICAgPC9SYW5nZT4NCiAgICAgIDxSZWZlcmVuY2U+DQogICAgICAgIDxSZWZlcmVuY2VUeXBlSWQ+Qm9vazwvUmVmZXJlbmNlVHlwZUlkPg0KICAgICAgICA8QXV0aG9ycz4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8UGVyc29uPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPExhc3ROYW1lPlVuaXRlZCBOYXRpb25zPC9MYXN0TmFtZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8L1BlcnNvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgPC9BdXRob3JzPg0KICAgICAgICA8SWQ+MGUwNTgwZTYtZDlmNy00ZjYwLTk2MmQtY2I3Mzk5YzYwMzA3PC9JZD4NCiAgICAgICAgPElzYm4+OTc4LTkyLTEtMTAxMzQwLTU8L0lzYm4+DQogICAgICAgIDxMb2NhdGlvbnM+DQogICAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9uPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPEFkZHJlc3M+aHR0cDovL3d3dy53b3JsZGNhdC5vcmcvb2NsYy85NTk4Njk2OTY8L0FkZHJlc3M+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb25UeXBlPkVsZWN0cm9uaWNBZGRyZXNzPC9Mb2NhdGlvblR5cGU+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9Mb2NhdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgPC9Mb2NhdGlvbnM+DQogICAgICAgIDxQbGFjZU9mUHVibGljYXRpb24+W1BsYWNlIG9mIHB1YmxpY2F0aW9uIG5vdCBpZGVudGlmaWVkXTwvUGxhY2VPZlB1YmxpY2F0aW9uPg0KICAgICAgICA8UHVibGlzaGVycz4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8UHVibGlzaGVyPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPE5hbWU+VU5JVEVEIE5BVElPTlM8L05hbWU+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9QdWJsaXNoZXI+DQogICAgICAgIDwvUHVibGlzaGVycz4NCiAgICAgICAgPFNlcXVlbmNlTnVtYmVyPjQ2PC9TZXF1ZW5jZU51bWJlcj4NCiAgICAgICAgPFNob3J0VGl0bGU+VW5pdGVkIE5hdGlvbnMgMjAxNiDigJMgU3VzdGFpbmFibGUgU2V2ZWxvcG1lbnQgR29hbHMgUmVwb3J0IDIwMTY8L1Nob3J0VGl0bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxTb3VyY2VPZkJpYmxpb2dyYXBoaWNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbj5Xb3JsZENhdDwvU291cmNlT2ZCaWJsaW9ncmFwaGljSW5mb3JtYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgIDxUaXRsZT5TdXN0YWluYWJsZSBTZXZlbG9wbWVudCBHb2FscyBSZXBvcnQgMjAxNjwvVGl0bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxZZWFyPjIwMTY8L1llYXI+DQogICAgICA8L1JlZmVyZW5jZT4NCiAgICA8L0VudHJ5Pg0KICA8L0VudHJpZXM+DQogIDxUZXh0PihVbml0ZWQgTmF0aW9ucyAyMDE2LCBwIDIpPC9UZXh0Pg0KICA8VGV4dFVuaXRzPg0KICAgIDxUZXh0VW5pdD4NCiAgICAgIDxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+DQogICAgICA8Rm9udE5hbWUgLz4NCiAgICAgIDxGb250U3R5bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+DQogICAgICAgIDxOYW1lIC8+DQogICAgICA8L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT4NCiAgICAgIDxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT4NCiAgICAgIDxUZXh0PihVbml0ZWQgTmF0aW9ucyAyMDE2LCBwIDIpPC9UZXh0Pg0KICAgIDwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+DQogIDwvVGV4dFVuaXRzPg0KPC9QbGFjZWhvbGRlcj4=(United Nations 2016, p 2). Furthermore, when governments retreat in certain areas of the public sector and cut the financial budget, NPOs gain increasing importance in those areas ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER bcdcd561-cf4b-438b-bb0d-320356fdc6ca 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(Winheller 2010, p 85).

DefinitionThe United Nations (UN) Handbook on Non-Profit Institutions (NPI) in the System of National Accounts (SNA) gives a comprehensive overview of the broad NPI sector among the member states ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 608f2796-4a38-4174-8fc4-2f9ce2df75f7 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(United Nations 2003, pp 1–3). NPOs are defined by an intermediary concept elaborated in the Johns Hopkins Comparative Non-Profit Sector Project ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 940bd082-72f2-415c-8717-31e3d3c92de6 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(United Nations 2003, pp 3–16). They share common elements and can be defined as private and self-governing organizations that are voluntary based and not profit distributing ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 25b3cf00-1d19-4d77-8e72-61e2e13d698a 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(Salamon 1999-, pp 3–4).

Organization – Institutionalized to some extent
Private –Institutionally separated from government
Non-profit-distribution – Owners and directors do not receive returning profits generated
Self-governing – Be able to control their own activities
Voluntary – Involve some meaningful degree of voluntary participation
The thesis refers to the aforementioned definition, although other similar definitions of the nonprofit sector do exist ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 0f5624f0-4a2b-45a2-a62d-a9cac7d76404 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(Winheller 2010, pp 82–83). In Germany, more than 500,000 NPOs exist in different fields of activity, with up to 500,000 individual members in the largest NPOs ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER ddbe334b-1c7f-4b2b-994b-402669a14b19 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(GHK ICF 2010, pp 13–14). The economic activities range from social services and animal protection to international activities and many more. The ICPNO system classifies NPOs into 12 major activity groups ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 8957299c-9158-4ef8-99ff-39ba9b90baf5 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(United Nations 2003, pp 26–41):
Culture and recreation
Education and research
Health
Social services
Environment
Development and housing
Law, advocacy and politics
Philanthropic intermediaries and voluntarism promotion
International
Religion
Business and professional associations, unions
Not elsewhere classifiedCharacteristicsSeveral characteristics can be derived from the definition that distinguish them from profit generating organizations. Some aspects are listed below.

Not-for-profit character: The objectives are driven by social or ideological impulses and are not profit oriented. There is no distribution of any profit earned to director or managers.

Public-goods production: Private and collective goods are usually financed through charitable contribution and volunteer effort. They arise when problems impede the emergence of market producers.

Governance structures: Non-profit boards are rarely paid and not publicly elected. Therefore, they differ from corporations.

Revenue structure: Different revenue-raising strategies and the orientation to the market are required, since businesses usually do not operate with volunteers and donations.

Staffing: A substantial number of volunteers is needed.

Capital sources: The attraction of equity capital is impeded because profits are not distributed to investors.
Tax treatment: NPOs are typically exempted from different taxes, especially corporate income taxes.

Legal treatment: NPOs are subject to special legal provisions such as the composition of their boards, the compensation of their staff, and their reporting and accounting standards.

Characteristic types of transactions: NPOs have final consumption expenditure and receive transfer payments in form of donations that cannot be accommodated in the corporation sectors.

NPOs have different requirements affecting significantly different functions in the process of value generation for instance fundraising, legal provision and HRM ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 9a8c3684-9c35-44b4-9530-82d8b3c3dbb5 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(United Nations 2003, pp 4–5).

RetentionRetention is understood differently in various fields, for instance in politics, education, marketing and natural science. Human Resources (HR) is a supportive activity in the value chain of organizations. According to HR, retention is defined as a sub function of HRM. Nowadays, it is about how to organize, recruit, develop, manage, and engage the 21st-century staff in a dramatically changing digital, economic, demographic and social landscape ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 2f04b177-5793-4506-a141-3504b3f2d053 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(Deloitte University Press, iv). The relevance and definition of retention are introduced in the following paragraphs.

Nonprofit relevanceEmployee retention is one of the most critical issues in the today´s business world. It first arouse attention in the 1970s, when it was usual for people to work for a single employer for a very long time and sometimes even for their entire work life ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER ec3e5a96-9d1b-46ef-8e8a-2b8495f488d1 PFBsYWNlaG9sZGVyPg0KICA8QWRkSW5WZXJzaW9uPjUuNS4wLjE8L0FkZEluVmVyc2lvbj4NCiAgPElkPmVjM2U1YTk2LTlkMWItNDZlZi04ZThhLTJiODQ5NWY0ODhkMTwvSWQ+DQogIDxFbnRyaWVzPg0KICAgIDxFbnRyeT4NCiAgICAgIDxBc3NvY2lhdGVXaXRoS25vd2xlZGdlSXRlbUlkPjI1ZjIzZWVlLTNkZjAtNDkxNy05Y2JkLTU5YjM3YmQyZjA1NzwvQXNzb2NpYXRlV2l0aEtub3dsZWRnZUl0ZW1JZD4NCiAgICAgIDxJZD41MDM5YmU5ZS04ZGRjLTRiZDAtOTQ5MC0yZTA1MWFhODNjNDk8L0lkPg0KICAgICAgPFBhZ2VSYW5nZT48IVtDREFUQVs8c3A+DQogIDxuPjYyMTwvbj4NCiAgPGluPnRydWU8L2luPg0KICA8b3M+NjIxPC9vcz4NCiAgPHBzPjYyMTwvcHM+DQo8L3NwPg0KPGVwPg0KICA8bj42MjI8L24+DQogIDxpbj50cnVlPC9pbj4NCiAgPG9zPjYyMjwvb3M+DQogIDxwcz42MjI8L3BzPg0KPC9lcD4NCjxvcz42MjHigJM2MjI8L29zPl1dPjwvUGFnZVJhbmdlPg0KICAgICAgPEVuZFBhZ2U+NjIyPC9FbmRQYWdlPg0KICAgICAgPFN0YXJ0UGFnZT42MjE8L1N0YXJ0UGFnZT4NCiAgICAgIDxOdW1lcmFsU3lzdGVtPkFyYWJpYzwvTnVtZXJhbFN5c3RlbT4NCiAgICAgIDxOdW1iZXJpbmdUeXBlPlBhZ2U8L051bWJlcmluZ1R5cGU+DQogICAgICA8UXVvdGF0aW9uVHlwZT5TdW1tYXJ5PC9RdW90YXRpb25UeXBlPg0KICAgICAgPFJlZmVyZW5jZUlkPjg1OGMxMGQyLWY0YzctNGE2ZS1hNzExLThiYjA2ZWQ0Y2JlOTwvUmVmZXJlbmNlSWQ+DQogICAgICA8UmFuZ2U+DQogICAgICAgIDxTdGFydD4wPC9TdGFydD4NCiAgICAgICAgPExlbmd0aD4yNDwvTGVuZ3RoPg0KICAgICAgPC9SYW5nZT4NCiAgICAgIDxSZWZlcmVuY2U+DQogICAgICAgIDxSZWZlcmVuY2VUeXBlSWQ+Qm9vazwvUmVmZXJlbmNlVHlwZUlkPg0KICAgICAgICA8QXV0aG9ycz4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8UGVyc29uPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPEZpcnN0TmFtZT5NYXR0aGlhczwvRmlyc3ROYW1lPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPExhc3ROYW1lPlpldWNoPC9MYXN0TmFtZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxTZXg+TWFsZTwvU2V4Pg0KICAgICAgICAgIDwvUGVyc29uPg0KICAgICAgICA8L0F1dGhvcnM+DQogICAgICAgIDxJZD44NThjMTBkMi1mNGM3LTRhNmUtYTcxMS04YmIwNmVkNGNiZTk8L0lkPg0KICAgICAgICA8SXNibj45NzgtMy02NjItNDQxNTItNzwvSXNibj4NCiAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9ucz4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8QWRkcmVzcz5odHRwOi8vd3d3LmxvYy5nb3YvY2F0ZGlyL2VuaGFuY2VtZW50cy9meTE2MDgvMjAxNTk2MDI3NS1iLmh0bWw8L0FkZHJlc3M+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb25UeXBlPkVsZWN0cm9uaWNBZGRyZXNzPC9Mb2NhdGlvblR5cGU+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9Mb2NhdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8QWRkcmVzcz5odHRwOi8vd3d3LmxvYy5nb3YvY2F0ZGlyL2VuaGFuY2VtZW50cy9meTE2MDgvMjAxNTk2MDI3NS1kLmh0bWw8L0FkZHJlc3M+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb25UeXBlPkVsZWN0cm9uaWNBZGRyZXNzPC9Mb2NhdGlvblR5cGU+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9Mb2NhdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8QWRkcmVzcz5odHRwOi8vd3d3LmxvYy5nb3YvY2F0ZGlyL2VuaGFuY2VtZW50cy9meTE2MDgvMjAxNTk2MDI3NS10Lmh0bWw8L0FkZHJlc3M+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb25UeXBlPkVsZWN0cm9uaWNBZGRyZXNzPC9Mb2NhdGlvblR5cGU+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8Tm90ZXM+VGFibGUgb2YgY29udGVudHM8L05vdGVzPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDwvTG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9uPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPEFkZHJlc3M+WmV1Y2ggMjAxNiAtIEhhbmRib29rIG9mIGh1bWFuIHJlc291cmNlcyBtYW5hZ2VtZW50LnBkZjwvQWRkcmVzcz4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxMb2NhdGlvblR5cGU+RWxlY3Ryb25pY0FkZHJlc3M8L0xvY2F0aW9uVHlwZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8L0xvY2F0aW9uPg0KICAgICAgICA8L0xvY2F0aW9ucz4NCiAgICAgICAgPFBhZ2VDb3VudEM1PjwhW0NEQVRBWzxvcz5wYWdlcyBjbTwvb3M+DQo8cHM+cGFnZXMgY208L3BzPl1dPjwvUGFnZUNvdW50QzU+DQogICAgICAgIDxQYWdlQ291bnQ+cGFnZXMgY208L1BhZ2VDb3VudD4NCiAgICAgICAgPFBsYWNlT2ZQdWJsaWNhdGlvbj5OZXcgWW9yayBOWTwvUGxhY2VPZlB1YmxpY2F0aW9uPg0KICAgICAgICA8UHVibGlzaGVycz4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8UHVibGlzaGVyPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPE5hbWU+U3ByaW5nZXIgQmVybGluIEhlaWRlbGJlcmc8L05hbWU+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9QdWJsaXNoZXI+DQogICAgICAgIDwvUHVibGlzaGVycz4NCiAgICAgICAgPFNlcXVlbmNlTnVtYmVyPjE0PC9TZXF1ZW5jZU51bWJlcj4NCiAgICAgICAgPFNob3J0VGl0bGU+WmV1Y2ggMjAxNiDigJMgSGFuZGJvb2sgb2YgaHVtYW4gcmVzb3VyY2VzIG1hbmFnZW1lbnQ8L1Nob3J0VGl0bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxTb3VyY2VPZkJpYmxpb2dyYXBoaWNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbj5MaWJyYXJ5IG9mIENvbmdyZXNzPC9Tb3VyY2VPZkJpYmxpb2dyYXBoaWNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgPFRpdGxlPkhhbmRib29rIG9mIGh1bWFuIHJlc291cmNlcyBtYW5hZ2VtZW50PC9UaXRsZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPFllYXI+MjAxNjwvWWVhcj4NCiAgICAgIDwvUmVmZXJlbmNlPg0KICAgIDwvRW50cnk+DQogIDwvRW50cmllcz4NCiAgPFRleHQ+KFpldWNoIDIwMTYsIHBwIDYyMeKAkzYyMik8L1RleHQ+DQogIDxUZXh0VW5pdHM+DQogICAgPFRleHRVbml0Pg0KICAgICAgPEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj4NCiAgICAgIDxGb250TmFtZSAvPg0KICAgICAgPEZvbnRTdHlsZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD4NCiAgICAgICAgPE5hbWUgLz4NCiAgICAgIDwvRm9udFN0eWxlPg0KICAgICAgPEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPg0KICAgICAgPFRleHQ+KFpldWNoIDIwMTYsIHBwIDYyMeKAkzYyMik8L1RleHQ+DQogICAgPC9UZXh0VW5pdD4NCiAgPC9UZXh0VW5pdHM+DQo8L1BsYWNlaG9sZGVyPg==(Zeuch 2016, pp 621–622). Nevertheless, as job mobility and voluntary job changes increase, companies face a new phenomenon called employee turnover. A high employee turnover can damage a company in terms of losing profit, knowledge, performance and reputation. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER ae09d422-aca2-4d5b-a5ef-dede84975b75 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 (2013) stated that in for-profit organizations, not only finding but also retaining high performers in key functions is crucial to generate long-term and substantial output. According to ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER f5b359a0-1b3c-43f2-8141-3f29cebcbe1c 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Inc. (2014), NPOs need to attend to the same tasks as profit-seeking organizations do when they turn to the challenges of establishing and maintaining a solid work force. The concepts of employee retention can be very useful for volunteers; they may need adaption but provide helpful orientation. Additionally, existing volunteer retention measures support creating a comprehensive concept. The measurement for successful retention regarding to organizational success is very complex. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER a561c06d-eb3d-45ae-a516-631249082cf6 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Sawhill & Williamson (2001) stated, “given the diversity of the organizations in the nonprofit sector, no single measure of success and no generic set of indicators will work for all of them”.
Definition”Retention should be understood as a systematic effort taken … to create an environment that encourages employees to remain employed” ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER a7e9522c-fa04-4831-9af6-5074d5edbce6 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(Zeuch 2016, p 621). Thus, volunteer retention can be defined as all systematic effort taken to create an environment that encourages volunteers to stay in the organization. Over time, various retention theories have emerged. They attempt to understand the factors underlying retention and turnover. As a result, satisfaction, motivation and engagement have found great acceptance. Those theories emphasize aspects, for instance the needs, equity, expectancy, job design, as well as personal resources and job resources. Furthermore, it is a two-sided relationship or social exchange between organization and workforce ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 8b73baaa-3a66-42c7-96ef-a0839e993a34 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(Zeuch 2016, 618-624).

VolunteerThe workforce of both volunteering and paid people of NPOs contribute to the value chain by generating products and services with economic value. As mentioned before, NPOs are largely driven by volunteers and motives beyond monetary profit. However, the term volunteer and relevance in Germany need to be clarified in the following paragraphs.

International and historical relevanceADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 9e096614-13f6-47e8-b92b-0a733b9c213c 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Salamon (1999-) argued that volunteerism has raised significant attention throughout the world. Volunteer work is sizeable and a major driver generating significant economic value. The data generated by the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project in 37 countries show that around 12 percent of the adult population, approximately 140 million people, are volunteers and contribute $400 billion to the global economy. International organizations such as the United Nations General Assembly, International Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, and the European Parliament highlight the importance of volunteers ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 4eb2c2ed-a43d-4749-a2a9-6f0bd05afc42 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(Young 2008, pp 3–7). Compared to the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the USA, Germany is a rather young volunteering nation. The development of the German civil society infrastructure has only taken place in the last decade. The principle of subsidiarity was introduced towards the end of the 19th century; it gives preference to NPOs over public services in relation to the provision of core welfare services. Historical events such as the division and unification after World War II reformed and shaped the volunteering sector by West Germany. This favored the creation of new structures and many organizations. In 1999, the first National Survey on Volunteering was carried out on behalf of the German ministry, which takes place every five years and publishes the number, motivation and engagement of volunteers ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 4b554cd4-59cf-4963-a424-c863e1e247f8 PFBsYWNlaG9sZGVyPg0KICA8QWRkSW5WZXJzaW9uPjUuNS4wLjE8L0FkZEluVmVyc2lvbj4NCiAgPElkPjRiNTU0Y2Q0LTU5Y2YtNDk2My1hNDI0LWM4NjNlMWUyNDdmODwvSWQ+DQogIDxFbnRyaWVzPg0KICAgIDxFbnRyeT4NCiAgICAgIDxBc3NvY2lhdGVXaXRoS25vd2xlZGdlSXRlbUlkPjk4YTgzNGE0LTFjODQtNGJmOS1hOWY0LWEzZDQ5NTMzMzE5NDwvQXNzb2NpYXRlV2l0aEtub3dsZWRnZUl0ZW1JZD4NCiAgICAgIDxJZD5hZmMyYzYxMy1lNDBmLTRlN2ItYmMwYS00YmIwNWM3NDE0YWE8L0lkPg0KICAgICAgPFBhZ2VSYW5nZT48IVtDREFUQVs8c3A+DQogIDxuPjE8L24+DQogIDxpbj50cnVlPC9pbj4NCiAgPG9zPjE8L29zPg0KICA8cHM+MTwvcHM+DQo8L3NwPg0KPGVwPg0KICA8bj4xMTwvbj4NCiAgPGluPnRydWU8L2luPg0KICA8b3M+MTE8L29zPg0KICA8cHM+MTE8L3BzPg0KPC9lcD4NCjxvcz4x4oCTMTE8L29zPl1dPjwvUGFnZVJhbmdlPg0KICAgICAgPEVuZFBhZ2U+MTE8L0VuZFBhZ2U+DQogICAgICA8U3RhcnRQYWdlPjE8L1N0YXJ0UGFnZT4NCiAgICAgIDxOdW1lcmFsU3lzdGVtPkFyYWJpYzwvTnVtZXJhbFN5c3RlbT4NCiAgICAgIDxOdW1iZXJpbmdUeXBlPlBhZ2U8L051bWJlcmluZ1R5cGU+DQogICAgICA8UXVvdGF0aW9uVHlwZT5TdW1tYXJ5PC9RdW90YXRpb25UeXBlPg0KICAgICAgPFJlZmVyZW5jZUlkPjkwYjVkNzNkLTE0NWMtNDI2Mi1iOGQ4LWZjYjQ1YzljZWM0YjwvUmVmZXJlbmNlSWQ+DQogICAgICA8UmFuZ2U+DQogICAgICAgIDxTdGFydD4wPC9TdGFydD4NCiAgICAgICAgPExlbmd0aD4yMzwvTGVuZ3RoPg0KICAgICAgPC9SYW5nZT4NCiAgICAgIDxSZWZlcmVuY2U+DQogICAgICAgIDxSZWZlcmVuY2VUeXBlSWQ+UHJlc3NSZWxlYXNlPC9SZWZlcmVuY2VUeXBlSWQ+DQogICAgICAgIDxBdXRob3JzPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDxQZXJzb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TGFzdE5hbWU+R0hLIElDRjwvTGFzdE5hbWU+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9QZXJzb24+DQogICAgICAgIDwvQXV0aG9ycz4NCiAgICAgICAgPEJpYlRlWEtleT5HSEtJQ0YuPC9CaWJUZVhLZXk+DQogICAgICAgIDxDb2xsYWJvcmF0b3JzPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDxQZXJzb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TGFzdE5hbWU+Q2VjaWxlIE1hdGhvdTwvTGFzdE5hbWU+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9QZXJzb24+DQogICAgICAgIDwvQ29sbGFib3JhdG9ycz4NCiAgICAgICAgPERhdGU+MjAxMC0wMi0xNzwvRGF0ZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPEVkaXRvcnM+DQogICAgICAgICAgPFBlcnNvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxMYXN0TmFtZT5HSEsgSUNGPC9MYXN0TmFtZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8L1BlcnNvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgPC9FZGl0b3JzPg0KICAgICAgICA8SWQ+OTBiNWQ3M2QtMTQ1Yy00MjYyLWI4ZDgtZmNiNDVjOWNlYzRiPC9JZD4NCiAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9ucz4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8QWRkcmVzcz5odHRwOi8vZWMuZXVyb3BhLmV1L2NpdGl6ZW5zaGlwL3BkZi9uYXRpb25hbF9yZXBvcnRfZGVfZW4ucGRmPC9BZGRyZXNzPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9uVHlwZT5FbGVjdHJvbmljQWRkcmVzczwvTG9jYXRpb25UeXBlPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDwvTG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgIDwvTG9jYXRpb25zPg0KICAgICAgICA8T25saW5lQWRkcmVzcz5odHRwOi8vZWMuZXVyb3BhLmV1L2NpdGl6ZW5zaGlwL3BkZi9uYXRpb25hbF9yZXBvcnRfZGVfZW4ucGRmPC9PbmxpbmVBZGRyZXNzPg0KICAgICAgICA8T3JnYW5pemF0aW9ucz4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8UGVyc29uPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPExhc3ROYW1lPkV1cm9wZWFuIENvbW1pc3Npb248L0xhc3ROYW1lPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDwvUGVyc29uPg0KICAgICAgICA8L09yZ2FuaXphdGlvbnM+DQogICAgICAgIDxTZXF1ZW5jZU51bWJlcj40PC9TZXF1ZW5jZU51bWJlcj4NCiAgICAgICAgPFNob3J0VGl0bGU+R0hLIElDRiAyMDEwLTAyLTE3IOKAkyBTdHVkeSBvbiBWb2x1bnRlZXJpbmc8L1Nob3J0VGl0bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxTdWJ0aXRsZT5Db3VudHJ5IFJlcG9ydCBHZXJtYW55PC9TdWJ0aXRsZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPFRpdGxlPlN0dWR5IG9uIFZvbHVudGVlcmluZyBpbiB0aGUgRXVyb3BlYW4gVW5pb248L1RpdGxlPg0KICAgICAgICA8VGl0bGVTdXBwbGVtZW50Pk5hdGlvbmFsIFJlcG9ydCAtIEdlcm1hbnk8L1RpdGxlU3VwcGxlbWVudD4NCiAgICAgICAgPFllYXI+MjAxMDwvWWVhcj4NCiAgICAgIDwvUmVmZXJlbmNlPg0KICAgIDwvRW50cnk+DQogIDwvRW50cmllcz4NCiAgPFRleHQ+KEdISyBJQ0YgMjAxMCwgcHAgMeKAkzExKTwvVGV4dD4NCiAgPFRleHRVbml0cz4NCiAgICA8VGV4dFVuaXQ+DQogICAgICA8SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPg0KICAgICAgPEZvbnROYW1lIC8+DQogICAgICA8Rm9udFN0eWxlPg0KICAgICAgICA8TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPg0KICAgICAgICA8TmFtZSAvPg0KICAgICAgPC9Gb250U3R5bGU+DQogICAgICA8Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+DQogICAgICA8VGV4dD4oR0hLIElDRiAyMDEwLCBwcCAx4oCTMTEpPC9UZXh0Pg0KICAgIDwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+DQogIDwvVGV4dFVuaXRzPg0KPC9QbGFjZWhvbGRlcj4=(GHK ICF 2010, pp 1–11). In 2014, the number of volunteers reached its peak in Germany with 43.6 percent of the resident population from the age of 14, which is approximately 30.9 million people ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER e3716845-0276-4d7d-b413-b1394b453243 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(Simonson, Vogel & Tesch-Römer 2016, p 25). Their indispensable contribution range from sport, culture, politics and many more.
DefinitionSeveral similar definitions for volunteers exist by official statistic departments in Europe and the US, and they share three common features ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER a04fcde7-2508-401d-9246-9bd9e3afe2c7 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(Young 2008, 10–14). Furthermore, a fourth criterion is used in Germany. All criteria for volunteering are described in the following paragraphs below.

Generation of public welfare
The activity of volunteers produces potential economic value for someone other than the person undertaking the activity. However, the recipients must not be exclusively members of the volunteer´s family.

Non-profit orientation
In return for their activity, they do not receive monetary payment or compensation. However, some forms of compensation are possible without violating the definition. They may receive non-monetary benefits in form of skills development, social connections, job contacts, social stand, and feelings of self-worth. Some forms of monetary compensation such as reimbursement of out-of-pocket expenses of volunteer assignments, compensation that is largely symbolic, and stipends intended to cover living expenses of the volunteer independent of the work.
Freedom of choice
They engage willingly without being, legally or institutionally, coerced. However, social obligation, for instance expectations of social groups, parental and peer pressure, does not make the activity obligatory.
Collective execution in public
In addition to that, the fourth criterion is required to define volunteering in Germany: Activities are collectively executed in public and they occur beyond the spheres of business, government, family and household ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 8112a72c-9eb2-4d59-9bc3-3f8922febc43 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(Simonson, Vogel & Tesch-Römer 2016, pp 25–31).

Concept of volunteer retentionVarious inputs build the concept of volunteer retention. The aforementioned definition and characteristics of NPOs and volunteers, the motive structure of volunteers and the existing tools of retention for employee and volunteer are some inputs for defining a comprehensive concept of volunteer retention. The following Motive Retention Tool (MRT) Interference approach explores the relationship between the degree of retention, motives of volunteers, and effective HR tools by focusing on retention.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2: MRT Interference – An approach to volunteer retentionMotivesVolunteers have specific characteristics that result in a certain inventory of volunteer motivation factors. By addressing and satisfying these motivation factors volunteers may be more likely to engage and stay in the NPO. In addition, specific motive structure may naturally lead to a higher degree of loyalty and retention success. Furthermore, volunteers consider leaving when various de-motivational factors outweigh. This model can provide an explanation why volunteers are more likely to stay or leave the NPO. Before creating or applying retention tools to volunteers, the nature of volunteer motives should be understood.

Volunteer Functions InventoryIn general, several studies have analyzed the factors underlying motivation. The motives can be divided into egoistic and altruistic motivation, driven by the benefit for oneself or others. Furthermore, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are related to the source of motivation if it is inside, initiated by oneself, or outside through forms of rewards. In the context of volunteers, studies show a broad mixture of intrinsic and extrinsic motives and suggest going beyond abstract categorizations. As a result, the Volunteer Functions Inventory (VFI), an inventory of six motivation factors of volunteerism, was developed ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 6d03f01d-58ac-47f5-a7ce-2a59ce4d3bd1 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(Bierhoff 2002, pp 315–319). It is one of the most consistent models, which provides evidence on the Functional Motivation Theory developed by Mark Snyder and Gil Clary in 1991 ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 781db473-b11b-4ccb-8e6d-27ede165ccf4 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(Asghar 2015, pp 1–4):
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 1: Motive functions of VFI# Motive function Description
1 Values Seek opportunities for altruism and humanitarian concerns for others
2 Understanding Gain experience to acquire new skills and utilize them
3 Social Foster social relationships
4 Enhancement Interest towards psychological growth to boost self esteem
5 Career Gain career related experience for professional advancement
6 Protective Overcome negative feelings and escape personal problems
According to the ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER d76673b2-734c-40dc-a87e-ade2bfaa826b 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Fetzer Institute (2017), the 30 items of the questionnaire are originally categorized and tested on a 7-point scale ranging from 0 = “not at all important” to 7 = “extremely important”. The VFI is successfully translated to German (see Appendix A), transferred in a 5-point scale questionnaire, and 2,255 volunteers in Switzerland were tested. The items of Values, Understanding and Enhancement scored in average three or more, whereas the others scored around two ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER b17194c5-3ba8-41be-8eab-691e9d20b6a5 PFBsYWNlaG9sZGVyPg0KICA8QWRkSW5WZXJzaW9uPjUuNS4wLjE8L0FkZEluVmVyc2lvbj4NCiAgPElkPmIxNzE5NGM1LTNiYTgtNDFiZS04ZWFiLTY5MWU5ZDIwYjZhNTwvSWQ+DQogIDxFbnRyaWVzPg0KICAgIDxFbnRyeT4NCiAgICAgIDxBc3NvY2lhdGVXaXRoS25vd2xlZGdlSXRlbUlkPjQyMzVjZDlhLWM5ZjctNDFhNy1hZjU1LTdiNDNiNzgyMDE4MDwvQXNzb2NpYXRlV2l0aEtub3dsZWRnZUl0ZW1JZD4NCiAgICAgIDxJZD40ODM1ODAxNS0zZDE2LTQ3MmUtODgzMC02MjNjZjNjMTQyZDU8L0lkPg0KICAgICAgPFBhZ2VSYW5nZT48IVtDREFUQVs8c3A+DQogIDxuPjczPC9uPg0KICA8aW4+dHJ1ZTwvaW4+DQogIDxvcz43Mzwvb3M+DQogIDxwcz43MzwvcHM+DQo8L3NwPg0KPGVwPg0KICA8bj44NTwvbj4NCiAgPGluPnRydWU8L2luPg0KICA8b3M+ODU8L29zPg0KICA8cHM+ODU8L3BzPg0KPC9lcD4NCjxvcz43M+KAkzg1PC9vcz5dXT48L1BhZ2VSYW5nZT4NCiAgICAgIDxFbmRQYWdlPjg1PC9FbmRQYWdlPg0KICAgICAgPFN0YXJ0UGFnZT43MzwvU3RhcnRQYWdlPg0KICAgICAgPE51bWVyYWxTeXN0ZW0+QXJhYmljPC9OdW1lcmFsU3lzdGVtPg0KICAgICAgPE51bWJlcmluZ1R5cGU+UGFnZTwvTnVtYmVyaW5nVHlwZT4NCiAgICAgIDxRdW90YXRpb25UeXBlPlN1bW1hcnk8L1F1b3RhdGlvblR5cGU+DQogICAgICA8UmVmZXJlbmNlSWQ+OWYwYTRkMDQtZmIyMS00ODQzLWFjZWUtOGMxMzFiYjE0YTQ3PC9SZWZlcmVuY2VJZD4NCiAgICAgIDxSYW5nZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPFN0YXJ0PjA8L1N0YXJ0Pg0KICAgICAgICA8TGVuZ3RoPjM0PC9MZW5ndGg+DQogICAgICA8L1JhbmdlPg0KICAgICAgPFJlZmVyZW5jZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPFJlZmVyZW5jZVR5cGVJZD5Kb3VybmFsQXJ0aWNsZTwvUmVmZXJlbmNlVHlwZUlkPg0KICAgICAgICA8QXV0aG9ycz4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8UGVyc29uPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPEZpcnN0TmFtZT5KZWFubmV0dGU8L0ZpcnN0TmFtZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxMYXN0TmFtZT5Pb3N0bGFuZGVyPC9MYXN0TmFtZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxTZXg+RmVtYWxlPC9TZXg+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9QZXJzb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgPFBlcnNvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxGaXJzdE5hbWU+U3RlZmFuPC9GaXJzdE5hbWU+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TGFzdE5hbWU+R8O8bnRlcnQ8L0xhc3ROYW1lPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPE1pZGRsZU5hbWU+VG9tYXM8L01pZGRsZU5hbWU+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8U2V4Pk1hbGU8L1NleD4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8L1BlcnNvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8UGVyc29uPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPEZpcnN0TmFtZT5TdXNhbjwvRmlyc3ROYW1lPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPExhc3ROYW1lPnZhbiBTY2hpZTwvTGFzdE5hbWU+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8U2V4PkZlbWFsZTwvU2V4Pg0KICAgICAgICAgIDwvUGVyc29uPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDxQZXJzb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8Rmlyc3ROYW1lPlRoZW88L0ZpcnN0TmFtZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxMYXN0TmFtZT5XZWhuZXI8L0xhc3ROYW1lPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPFNleD5NYWxlPC9TZXg+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9QZXJzb24+DQogICAgICAgIDwvQXV0aG9ycz4NCiAgICAgICAgPElkPjlmMGE0ZDA0LWZiMjEtNDg0My1hY2VlLThjMTMxYmIxNGE0NzwvSWQ+DQogICAgICAgIDxMb2NhdGlvbnM+DQogICAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9uPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPEFkZHJlc3M+SmVhbm5ldHRlIE9vc3RsYW5kZXIsIFN0ZWZhbiBUb21hcyBHw7xudGVydCBldCBhbC4gLSBWb2x1bnRlZXIgRnVuY3Rpb25zIEludmVudG9yeSBWRkkucGRmPC9BZGRyZXNzPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9uVHlwZT5FbGVjdHJvbmljQWRkcmVzczwvTG9jYXRpb25UeXBlPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDwvTG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgIDwvTG9jYXRpb25zPg0KICAgICAgICA8UGFnZVJhbmdlPjwhW0NEQVRBWzxzcD4NCiAgPG4+NzM8L24+DQogIDxpbj50cnVlPC9pbj4NCiAgPG9zPjczPC9vcz4NCiAgPHBzPjczPC9wcz4NCjwvc3A+DQo8ZXA+DQogIDxuPjg1PC9uPg0KICA8aW4+dHJ1ZTwvaW4+DQogIDxvcz44NTwvb3M+DQogIDxwcz44NTwvcHM+DQo8L2VwPg0KPG9zPjcz4oCTODU8L29zPl1dPjwvUGFnZVJhbmdlPg0KICAgICAgICA8RW5kUGFnZT44NTwvRW5kUGFnZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPFN0YXJ0UGFnZT43MzwvU3RhcnRQYWdlPg0KICAgICAgICA8UGVyaW9kaWNhbD4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8TmFtZT5EaWFnbm9zdGljYTwvTmFtZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPC9QZXJpb2RpY2FsPg0KICAgICAgICA8U2VxdWVuY2VOdW1iZXI+MzY8L1NlcXVlbmNlTnVtYmVyPg0KICAgICAgICA8U2hvcnRUaXRsZT5Pb3N0bGFuZGVyLCBHw7xudGVydCBldCBhbC4gMjAxNCDigJMgVm9sdW50ZWVyIEZ1bmN0aW9ucyBJbnZlbnRvcnkgVkZJPC9TaG9ydFRpdGxlPg0KICAgICAgICA8VGl0bGU+Vm9sdW50ZWVyIEZ1bmN0aW9ucyBJbnZlbnRvcnkgKFZGSSk6IEtvbnN0cnVrdHZhbGlkaXTDpHQgdW5kIHBzeWNob21ldHJpc2NoZSBFaWdlbnNjaGFmdGVuIGRlciBkZXV0c2NoZW4gQWRhcHRhdGlvbjwvVGl0bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxZZWFyPjIwMTQ8L1llYXI+DQogICAgICA8L1JlZmVyZW5jZT4NCiAgICA8L0VudHJ5Pg0KICA8L0VudHJpZXM+DQogIDxUZXh0PihPb3N0bGFuZGVyIGV0IGFsLiAyMDE0LCBwcCA3M+KAkzg1KTwvVGV4dD4NCiAgPFRleHRVbml0cz4NCiAgICA8VGV4dFVuaXQ+DQogICAgICA8SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPg0KICAgICAgPEZvbnROYW1lIC8+DQogICAgICA8Rm9udFN0eWxlPg0KICAgICAgICA8TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPg0KICAgICAgICA8TmFtZSAvPg0KICAgICAgPC9Gb250U3R5bGU+DQogICAgICA8Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+DQogICAgICA8VGV4dD4oT29zdGxhbmRlciBldCBhbC4gMjAxNCwgcHAgNzPigJM4NSk8L1RleHQ+DQogICAgPC9UZXh0VW5pdD4NCiAgPC9UZXh0VW5pdHM+DQo8L1BsYWNlaG9sZGVyPg==(Oostlander et al. 2014, pp 73–85). Germany and Switzerland are neighboring countries, speak the same official language, share one climate zone and have a free flow of labor. Hence, the questionnaire is applied to this study since their culture and volunteering characteristics are very similar.
Volunteer motivation in GermanyIn the National Survey of 2014, more than 28,000 volunteers in Germany were asked to which degree they agree to the following statements ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER d196936a-81d0-4ed6-94d5-ee4099729b07 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(Simonson, Vogel & Tesch-Römer 2016, pp 406–426):
93,9% have fun
82,0% want to meet other people
81,0% want to shape the society
80,1% want to get together with other generations
51,5% want to gain qualifications
31,6% want to gain image and influence
24,9% want to proceed professionally
7,2% want to earn some money
The result of the study shows that German volunteers put importance on enjoyment, socializing, personal and professional development. It seems the result correlates to similar items of Values, Understanding, Career and Enhancement in the VFI that should be analyzed.

Hygiene factorsIn the 1950s and 1960s, ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 39fa9e80-f952-4faa-be00-a8779a1bf8bd 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Herzberg (1987) did research on employee motivation and discovered a dichotomy: Factors that motivate and satisfy people on the job are different in kind from factors that dissatisfy them, hygiene factors.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 2: Motivating and hygiene factorsMotivating factors Hygiene factors
Achievement Company policy and administration
Recognition Supervision
Work itself Work conditions
Responsibility Salary
Advancement Relationship with peers
Growth Personal life
Status
Security
Even if several motivating factors exist, unfulfilled presence of hygiene factors may lead to dissatisfaction and give volunteers the reason to leave. The specific hygiene factors in NPOs affecting volunteers may vary and should be explored. Unfortunately, this topic cannot be empirically researched since it goes beyond the scope of this thesis.

Retention toolsADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER b8d0440f-a06e-4499-be9d-ebb11eb01324 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Robert Half International Inc (2017) proposed an effective retention strategy program, which addresses the concerns of all different people with unique desires and goals and support organizational goals. According to Zeuch (2016), job resources are preconditions for engagement, which is positively related to retention. They refer to physical, social, or organizational aspects of the job that can reduce job demands, be functional in achieving work goals, decrease physiological and psychological costs, stimulate personal growth, learning, and development ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 513fe9c8-e7ca-4db8-9caa-1a10404650e1 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(Zeuch 2016, pp 618–620). Examples for job resources are development opportunities, performance feedback, reward and recognition, autonomy, skill variety, fairness, social support from colleagues and supervisors. HR tools constitute the retention program and can provide job resources in the fields of new hire orientation, culture, communication and teamwork. Furthermore, they can meet motives of volunteers and, together, increase engagement and enhance the bond to the organization. In the following paragraphs, the financial relevance and possible HR retention tools will be introduced and be adapted to NPO.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 3: Summary of retention tools# Retention Tool Description
1 Orientation Give the very kick off
2 Compensation Provide financial support
3 Relation Strengthen relationship between people
4 Care Enhance people oriented culture
5 Development Focus on the individual development
6 Award Appreciate outstanding performance
7 Communication Spread meaningful information
Financial relevanceTurnover cost is sum of hidden and visible cost from the pre-departure phase of the volunteer leave until the implementation of a new fully effective volunteer. First, hidden cost are for instance the lost productivity of the current volunteer, other volunteer and the vacant position resulted from demotivation and low performance. Second, visible cost are expenses related to separation, vacancy, marketing, selection, hiring, onboarding and training of new volunteers. In accordance with the idea of ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 91ee6397-ba39-4c48-a45c-95a6a0339bd9 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 (2013), the employee turnover cost can be derived by the salary. They can range from 30% up to 400% of the annual salary depending on the job, entry level and other factors. Therefore, turnover cost of volunteers cannot be easily measured by monetary means since volunteers do not receive salary. Nevertheless, there are likely potential losses when high and well performing volunteers leave the organization. NPOs should find cost effective ways to keep their volunteers. It starts in the phase of selecting the right people, and continues with listening to their needs and offer them an attractive organization ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER f5251885-ceb9-406d-85b3-0bf034b2a8da 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(Olenski 2015, pp 1–3).

Volunteer OrientationThe tool of employee orientation is clearly described by ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER a19cc98a-b68b-403b-8d09-d40af535229f 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Zeuch (2016) and can be easily adapted for volunteers with minimum financial investment. Volunteer orientation is about to welcome new volunteers. It provides them a insightful introduction about the organization and their job. Additionally, it gives an overview of the vision, strategy, goals, opportunities and people, saves time of supervisors and motivates volunteers on the first day. The volunteer orientation program can consist of mentoring or events that aimed for individuals or groups depending on their needs. A volunteer orientation day can start in the morning with the introduction of the history, brand and organization structure. Afterwards, the lunchtime can be arranged with the general manager or management team. Other options, for instance an organization round tour, product introduction, volunteer handbook, overview of training and development, can be added to create an even more memorable and motivating first day. The emphasis on the importance and possible development options of specific volunteer roles enhances self-esteem and give the feeling to be needed. Depending on the organization, it can be executed online via modern telecommunication services or on site. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 03d8e5cc-03a0-4375-b3f1-87f1f4f6963b 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Byford, Watkins & Triantogiannis (2017) found out that onboarding is the basis for good integration and accelerates the process of reaching full performance and significant contribution in new roles. This tool can emphasize and fulfill all aspects of the motive inventory and is an effective retention tool.

Volunteer CompensationSome monetary compensation are legally allowed for volunteers. More than 35 percent of German volunteers want to avoid bureaucratic reimbursement ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER b7d25155-b94b-4d5d-b71d-f437edfee567 PFBsYWNlaG9sZGVyPg0KICA8QWRkSW5WZXJzaW9uPjUuNS4wLjE8L0FkZEluVmVyc2lvbj4NCiAgPElkPmI3ZDI1MTU1LWI5NGItNGQ1ZC1iNzFkLWY0MzdlZGZlZTU2NzwvSWQ+DQogIDxFbnRyaWVzPg0KICAgIDxFbnRyeT4NCiAgICAgIDxBc3NvY2lhdGVXaXRoS25vd2xlZGdlSXRlbUlkPjVkOTA4ZDNjLWRiZjgtNDUyNS1iMzMxLTdiZWJlYWQyZjI4ODwvQXNzb2NpYXRlV2l0aEtub3dsZWRnZUl0ZW1JZD4NCiAgICAgIDxJZD41OGVhMGY0Mi1hMDRkLTRkMTAtOTViZC1iYjNmNDc4N2NiMTA8L0lkPg0KICAgICAgPFBhZ2VSYW5nZT48IVtDREFUQVs8c3A+DQogIDxuPjUxMzwvbj4NCiAgPG5zPk9taXQ8L25zPg0KICA8b3M+NTEz4oCTNTM4PC9vcz4NCiAgPHBzPjUxM+KAkzUzODwvcHM+DQo8L3NwPg0KPGVwPg0KICA8bnM+T21pdDwvbnM+DQo8L2VwPg0KPG9zPjUxM+KAkzUzODwvb3M+XV0+PC9QYWdlUmFuZ2U+DQogICAgICA8U3RhcnRQYWdlPjUxM+KAkzUzODwvU3RhcnRQYWdlPg0KICAgICAgPE51bWVyYWxTeXN0ZW0+T21pdDwvTnVtZXJhbFN5c3RlbT4NCiAgICAgIDxOdW1iZXJpbmdUeXBlPlBhZ2U8L051bWJlcmluZ1R5cGU+DQogICAgICA8UXVvdGF0aW9uVHlwZT5TdW1tYXJ5PC9RdW90YXRpb25UeXBlPg0KICAgICAgPFJlZmVyZW5jZUlkPmFmYWUwZDU1LTNiZDMtNDEzYi04YTk1LTE4NmEzNzg0YzRlNTwvUmVmZXJlbmNlSWQ+DQogICAgICA8UmFuZ2U+DQogICAgICAgIDxTdGFydD4wPC9TdGFydD4NCiAgICAgICAgPExlbmd0aD40NTwvTGVuZ3RoPg0KICAgICAgPC9SYW5nZT4NCiAgICAgIDxSZWZlcmVuY2U+DQogICAgICAgIDxSZWZlcmVuY2VUeXBlSWQ+UHJlc3NSZWxlYXNlPC9SZWZlcmVuY2VUeXBlSWQ+DQogICAgICAgIDxBdXRob3JzPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDxQZXJzb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8Rmlyc3ROYW1lPkp1bGlhPC9GaXJzdE5hbWU+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TGFzdE5hbWU+U2ltb25zb248L0xhc3ROYW1lPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPFNleD5GZW1hbGU8L1NleD4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8L1BlcnNvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8UGVyc29uPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPEZpcnN0TmFtZT5DbGF1ZGlhPC9GaXJzdE5hbWU+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TGFzdE5hbWU+Vm9nZWw8L0xhc3ROYW1lPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPFNleD5GZW1hbGU8L1NleD4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8L1BlcnNvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8UGVyc29uPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPEZpcnN0TmFtZT5DbGVtZW5zPC9GaXJzdE5hbWU+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TGFzdE5hbWU+VGVzY2gtUsO2bWVyPC9MYXN0TmFtZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxTZXg+TWFsZTwvU2V4Pg0KICAgICAgICAgIDwvUGVyc29uPg0KICAgICAgICA8L0F1dGhvcnM+DQogICAgICAgIDxEYXRlPjIwMTYtMDQtMTQ8L0RhdGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxJZD5hZmFlMGQ1NS0zYmQzLTQxM2ItOGE5NS0xODZhMzc4NGM0ZTU8L0lkPg0KICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb25zPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDxMb2NhdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxBZGRyZXNzPkp1bGlhIFNpbW9uc29uLCBDbGF1ZGlhIFZvZ2VsIGV0IGFsLiAyMDE2LTA0LTE0IC0gRnJlaXdpbGxpZ2VzIEVuZ2FnZW1lbnQgaW4gRGV1dHNjaGxhbmQucGRmPC9BZGRyZXNzPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9uVHlwZT5FbGVjdHJvbmljQWRkcmVzczwvTG9jYXRpb25UeXBlPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDwvTG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgIDwvTG9jYXRpb25zPg0KICAgICAgICA8T3JnYW5pemF0aW9ucz4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8UGVyc29uPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPExhc3ROYW1lPkJ1bmRlc21pbmlzdGVyaXVtIGbDvHIgRmFtaWxpZSwgU2VuaW9yZW4sIEZyYXVlbiB1bmQgSnVnZW5kPC9MYXN0TmFtZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8L1BlcnNvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgPC9Pcmdhbml6YXRpb25zPg0KICAgICAgICA8U2VxdWVuY2VOdW1iZXI+MjU8L1NlcXVlbmNlTnVtYmVyPg0KICAgICAgICA8U2hvcnRUaXRsZT5TaW1vbnNvbiwgVm9nZWwgZXQgYWwuIDIwMTYtMDQtMTQg4oCTIEZyZWl3aWxsaWdlcyBFbmdhZ2VtZW50IGluIERldXRzY2hsYW5kPC9TaG9ydFRpdGxlPg0KICAgICAgICA8U3VidGl0bGU+RGVyIERldXRzY2hlIEZyZWl3aWxsaWdlbnN1cnZleSAyMDE0PC9TdWJ0aXRsZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPFRpdGxlPkZyZWl3aWxsaWdlcyBFbmdhZ2VtZW50IGluIERldXRzY2hsYW5kPC9UaXRsZT4NCiAgICAgIDwvUmVmZXJlbmNlPg0KICAgIDwvRW50cnk+DQogIDwvRW50cmllcz4NCiAgPFRleHQ+KFNpbW9uc29uLCBWb2dlbCAmYW1wOyBUZXNjaC1Sw7ZtZXIgMjAxNiwgNTEz4oCTNTM4KTwvVGV4dD4NCiAgPFRleHRVbml0cz4NCiAgICA8VGV4dFVuaXQ+DQogICAgICA8SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPg0KICAgICAgPEZvbnROYW1lIC8+DQogICAgICA8Rm9udFN0eWxlPg0KICAgICAgICA8TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPg0KICAgICAgICA8TmFtZSAvPg0KICAgICAgPC9Gb250U3R5bGU+DQogICAgICA8Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+DQogICAgICA8VGV4dD4oU2ltb25zb24sIFZvZ2VsICZhbXA7IFRlc2NoLVLDtm1lciAyMDE2LCA1MTPigJM1MzgpPC9UZXh0Pg0KICAgIDwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+DQogIDwvVGV4dFVuaXRzPg0KPC9QbGFjZWhvbGRlcj4=(Simonson, Vogel & Tesch-Römer 2016, 513–538). If they take financial burdens for volunteering, this might result to leaving the organization. In addition, some symbolic forms of financial support and stipends can even be a motivating factor. An efficient and fast system for handling expenses of volunteers provides better financial security; it avoids complications and increases motivation. Flawless and transparent communication between volunteers, human resource and finance department is the foundation and can be simply established through prepared forms and instructions. The following monetary benefits are conform to the definition of volunteers in Germany by the ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 18092608-2624-4d17-ba09-10a95bd6372e 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Bavarian Ministry of Finance (2014):
“Übungsleiterfreibetrag”: Some trainer can be honored and receive financial compensation up to 2,400 Euro per year when they are educational oriented or among specific categories.
“Ehrenamtspauschale”: In addition, most of the charitable activities of volunteers can be honored with maximum 720 Euro annually.

Reimbursement of expenses: Transportation cost by car can be reimbursed at a rate of 0.30 Euro per kilometer and daily flat rates can be provided ranging from 12 to 24 Euro per day
Volunteer RelationsOrganizational performance, productivity, higher satisfaction of volunteers and retention level can be achieved by cultural and social activities. They can improve morale and problem-solving skills, enhance communication, increase sense of vision and purpose, and enable exchange across departmental boundaries ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 36123089-669c-4eda-a171-a8fa6a4e9191 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(Zeuch 2016, p 676). Cultural and social activities can be designed by HR professionals and be communicated more effectively by internal marketing campaigns to increase voluntary participation rate. Some examples for strengthening the relationship among workforce are:
Group events, that build trust and improve communication, such as excursion, dinner, sporting activities and charity events
Games, that are simple and strengthen the team spirit, for instance Multi-way Tug-of-War, Big Knot, Up on the Chairs, All Aboard, Great Egg Drop, Survival Scenario Exercise, Mine field, Balloon Juggle and Sort, Catch the Balloon, Balloon Dance, Balloon Frenzy, Balloon Finger Balance …

The detailed description, instructions, variations of these events and games can be found in the book ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 7ba00c23-8efe-49a3-ae68-b5987a98204e 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(Zeuch 2016, pp 677–695). As a NPO, the financial burden for the events should be distributed among the voluntary participants. This tool is efficient and has a major impact on social attachment and can solve or prevent some internal de-motivators.
Volunteer CareVarious activities for employee care might cause financial burdens ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 0038573f-10aa-4d93-bbba-2c32fe828e70 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(Zeuch 2016, pp 713–725). Some of them are very favorable for NPOs and can be coordinated by volunteers. They can promote a people-oriented culture that guides the way of interaction with each other, motivate and offer personal recognition. The HR responsible should assist volunteers in the idea finding and implementation of these activities. In addition, some activities could be funded by volunteers. They can be classified for individuals and teams:
For individuals:
Birthday: Small recognition can be provided for this special event for instance encourage team members to sign and provide a birthday card, ask a superior to congratulate in person or give a small cake.

Marriage: This event can be honored with gifts like flowers, a luxury passenger car used as wedding car, a congratulation card of the team, a photographer for the wedding and a speech written by the general manager.

Sickness: Encouragement can be expressed by arranging a visit from his or her closest colleagues by taking along a small present, such as flower or fruit.

Birth of a new baby: The family can be supported for example with a congratulation card signed by the whole team, a collective gift and a pin board with family photos in the office.

Condolence: To show respect and empathy for the volunteer on the unfortunate event, a bunch of flower for the funeral can be very helpful.

For teams:
Dating: By supporting, the private life of volunteers, a “joint singles party” organized with other organizations in the neighborhood might enhance social exchange. Singles can meet and get to know each other in way described in the section Volunteer Relations.
Potluck: To strengthen the team spirit, a buffet can be organized where every volunteer contribute their dish to the team. This can be combined with a birthday or donation event and with nice decoration or music.

Friendship: To improve communication and recognition, a friendship event can be very helpful. Every volunteer draws secretly the name of somebody else and becomes his or her unexpected friend for a certain period. Friendship obligations are for instance treating with particular friendliness, courtesy and helpfulness and bringing a small present with a nametag. The gifts can be collected on the last day and be distributed during break. After receiving the present, the volunteer can guess who their secret friend is.
Volunteer DevelopmentMore than 40.8 percent of German volunteers wish improvement of training opportunities and professional support in their activity ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER eab73260-b4f1-486d-9bb8-54ecc2a70200 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(Simonson, Vogel & Tesch-Römer 2016, 513-538). Volunteer Development tools can support volunteers in their self-experience, personal and professional development.

Training program
Training programs require time, money, and workforce and can increase retention, productivity and growth. It creates flexible and highly skilled people and promotes a mindset of learning which can be attractive. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER e96fc20a-abf4-4dce-afb1-3a84f7f9920c 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Wormley (2015) claimed that the need of trainings can be resulted from changes in technology, organization practices and policies, new recruitments, noticeable slow-down in productivity and other factors. As NPO, there is a huge range of free training programs available, offered by university, government, companies or volunteers.

Feedback
The development of leaders and volunteers with feedback skills can contribute to a goal-oriented learning culture, improve communication and performance, and increase retention. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER f4056a34-c528-4a29-87de-8d03adddf4c5 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Gallo (2009) exclaims, “good feedback is essential to keeping them engaged, focused, and motivated”. Feedback should be executed in three levels and its agenda should be agreed from the start: Current performance, next performance frontier, and future goals and aspiration.

Current performance: Start with his/her accomplishments and show gratitude for his/her contribution and success.
Next performance frontier: Tap into his/her commitment to support his/her personal development and engage a discussion about how to achieve the next performance level.

Identify future goals and aspiration: Once the next frontier is agreed, ask about his/her motivation and values by questions such as “What do you want to be known for?” or “What matters most to you?” This gives him/her a chance to reflect on his/her career path.

Solicit feedback: The feedback session should be wrapped up by asking for feedback such as: “How can I continue to support your important contribution?” or “What can we do as an organization to improve and support your great work?”
Volunteer AwardAn efficient reward system values the contribution of volunteers and motivates them to stay and deliver further meaningful outcomes. In business, several award types exist such as the best performance and long service award ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 1be4e810-4fbf-432c-af71-4d0e35bf9a42 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(Zeuch 2016, pp 763–768). The awarding process can be adapted to NPOs and organized by HR. About 30 percent of German volunteers embrace improvements in recognition through awards. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER de6187a6-16c1-4c65-a738-86bd5d3e019e 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(Simonson, Vogel & Tesch-Römer 2016, pp 513–538)
Best performance award
The best performance award demonstrate the high value of organization placing on the efforts and achievements. Entire departments or single volunteers can be periodically awarded for their outstanding achievements in the area of customer satisfaction. Different award types are possible:
Trophy
Certificate
Higher responsibility
Training
Long service award
The long service award acknowledge and reward the loyalty and commitment of every volunteer. It highly appreciates the long-term commitment, reduces volunteer turnover, encourages high performance, preserve knowledge, saves cost for recruitment, improve volunteer satisfaction. Every volunteer regardless of any background should be eligible. All awardees should have an aggregated and proven track record of 5, 10, 15 or more years in the organization. The nomination process can be suggested as follows:
Information on the years of service of every volunteer in the NPO has to be gathered and updated.

Data has to be analyzed at least once a year to find all eligible nominees that should be discussed with the management several months in advance.

Certificate and ceremony have to prepared and the event should occur in a nice setting, such as a restaurant or similar, once a year. Optional gifts like flower bouquet, gift voucher and gift basket can make it more memorable for volunteers.
Effective award systems recognize and appreciate the individual or group performance, and encourage volunteers to strive for greater success and improvements, therefore increase volunteer engagement, performance and retention.

Volunteer CommunicationA transparent communication of activities can keep members up-to-date and highlights the progress, achievements and next goals of the organization and its members. This connects volunteers with the entire organization and its values by simply good communication. It can be achieved by developing and utilizing effective communication channels for specific issues depending on the organization such as:
Central media press release
Newsletter
Annual report
Personal feedback
A good flow of information emphasizes the organization value, encourages volunteers to stay in the organization and aim for continuous success. The HR department can gather and communicate information or support other departments by publishing their outcomes, goals and needs to volunteers.

Others factorsVolunteer retention tools go beyond “thank you” and may have a wide impact on the personal motive structure. The motives of volunteers and impact of tools of NPOs may change and develop over time. In addition, the range, implementation and effect of retention tools may not be fully covered and even vary between organizations. Internal and external factors such as politics, personal environment, family, study, profession, love, disasters, government and many more cannot be fully considered in this paper. There is a significant need for continuous investigation beyond.

Retention indicatorsRetention success can be indicated in many ways from different perspective such as by a low risk of leaving from the perspective of volunteer. Furthermore, it can be calculated by turnover rate and be defined by how organizations meet their expectation. Another retention success indicator can be resulted by the duration of volunteering. Overall, the relationship of those indicators, VFI and HR tools are analyzed; they form the foundation of the following empirical research. Before, the definition of turnover rate, duration of volunteering, voluntary workload, turnover cost, and risk of leaving are clarified in the following paragraphs.

Turnover rateThe basic metric to measure the success of retention is the turnover rate. Turnover in terms of volunteers is the process in which volunteers leave the organization and have to be replaced. It can be distinguished in two types:
Voluntary turnover, initiated by volunteers against the wish of the NPO
Involuntary turnover, initiated by the NPO
The volunteer turnover rate is the percentage of number of volunteer leaving the organization in a year divided by number of volunteers at midyear. By ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER eaea692d-013e-4bb9-9d94-aaff4348ad81 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Trost (2013), this can be measured as an average rate and be classified into different groups, depending on performance and function,. 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Duration of volunteeringThe duration of volunteering is the number of months/years volunteers are engaged in the NPO. It can be measured on the individual, departmental and organizational level by tracking record when people joined, had a break, restarted and left the organization. This metric uses the time dimension as comparison.
Voluntary workloadThe voluntary workload can be described as units of actions done by a volunteer in a specific timeframe. In general, it can also be measured in total hours spent weekly by performing voluntary activities.
Risk of leavingThe risk of leaving is the probability of somebody leaving the NPO within a certain period. It can be captured by asking volunteers about his/her own assessment in volunteer surveys. Some factors may predict a lower or higher risk of leaving:
The more satisfied people are with the volunteering situation the more likely they will stay.

If they strive for a long-term goal in the NPO, they are more likely to remain in the organization to achieve it.

When people had a serious thought about leaving in the last months, it is likely that they would leave in the future.

Empirical researchSince NPOs and volunteers gain more and more relevance and attention, volunteer retention and the concept behind it are worth to be explored, tested and analyzed. The theoretical part of this paper build the foundation for further research. Empirical research can provide a comprehensive insight and can help to confirm and advance the theoretical concept of volunteer retention in NPOs. The research aims to analyze the specific relationships between motive structure of volunteers, retention tools of NPOs and its retention success. A mixed methods research is “an approach to research in the social, behavioral, and health sciences in which the investigator gathers both quantitative (closed-ended) and qualitative (open-ended) data, integrates the two, and then draws interpretations based on the combined strengths of both sets of data to understand research problems” ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER ca3c87be-b794-426a-bdca-d65e810386ba 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(Creswell 2015, p 2). This would be a great approach but due to thesis limit, the full range of retention tools of NPOs cannot be explored by a qualitative research. Therefore, the framework of retention tools are given solely theoretically and its impacts are analyzed quantitatively from the perspective of volunteers. The research plan for data collection and analysis are summarized in the table:
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 4: General information about data collection and analysisData collection Description
Participants Employee and volunteers
Site for the research Online survey
Number of participants 296
Types of information to be collected Nominal, numerical and ordinal variables
Types of data Online survey list
Data analysis Description
Procedures for organizing the data SPSS file, extracting volunteers
Basic data analysis procedure Descriptive analysis of quantitative data
More advanced data analysis procedure Inferential analysis with group comparison, correlation and regression
Software programs SPSS Statitics 24
The quality of research, derived from the validity, objectivity and reliability, is reflected in the data collection and analysis. The following paragraphs introduces the research goal, its limitation and provide more insight about data collection and analysis. All item abbreviations of the survey are described in Appendix G.

Research goalQuantitative research is largely researcher driven and offers remarkable advantages to draw conclusions for large numbers of people, to analyze data efficiently, to investigate relationships within database, to examine probable causes and effects and many more ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER f0238e83-24c1-4cf1-ae05-da21a4994b22 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(Creswell 2015, p 5). Therefore, it is most suitable to test, understand and analyze rapidly the interrelation between retention success, retention tools and motive structure of massive numbers of volunteers. The quality of research are mainly determined by validity, reliability and objectivity ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER a7666bb2-81b9-430d-aebe-868e9ba2358d 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(Schmidt-Atzert & Amelang op. 2012, pp 129–163). The outcome of the research should provide benefits for each stakeholder such as NPOs, volunteers, scientists:
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 5: Possible benefits for stakeholders# Stakeholder Benefit
1 NPO Enhance their contribution to public welfare
2 Volunteer Strengthen their relationship to the organization
3 Researcher Gather valuable results on this topic for further research
Other stakeholders such as government and business can also benefit from the research results. Details about research questions and results are explained in the following paragraphs of the data analysis.

Research limitationEven though the research focus on motive structure and retention tools of volunteers, retention can be overall very complex. The thesis focuses on the verified VFI with its six motive functions, seven retention tools of NPOs in HR and the retention success from the perspective of volunteers. The following factors cannot be analyzed in the paper due to time limitation: First, the range of all possible retention tools and motive functions may not be fully addressed and it is nearly impossible to capture them all. Second, other factors such as personal background and experience of the target group, political, and economic circumstances in the country may affect retention success but they are out of scope of this thesis. Third, other stakeholders than volunteers and NPO can define retention success differently.

Data collectionOnline survey is a research instrument for collecting data on the internet platform that has the potential to reach a huge audience. Among several online survey providers, SoSci Survey can be considered as the most attractive software for this research ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 6ae63a04-aef9-47bf-baf1-8a750e71222b 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(1&1 Internet SE 2016). It is free for scientific and non-commercial use. In addition, it shows attractive benefits, for example it can provide more than 30 types of questions, gather inputs of up to 5,000 participants, has no advertisement and export data easily for SPSS data analysis which is used in this paper. More information are available on the website, www.soscisurvey.de. The data collection procedure started on 22 June 2017 and ended on 16 July 2017, just before the summer break in most regions of Germany increasing the participation rate. In the following paragraphs, the gatekeeper approach, the NPO sample selection, its results, and the volunteer survey is introduced before continuing with the data analysis.

Gatekeepers: NPONPOs have various characteristics and are gatekeepers to target many volunteers. Since the survey is conducted in German, there are different instruments verified thoroughly in collaboration with native speakers. They are used to address the target group more effectively and in a correct manner. The instruments and five approach steps are as follows:
1. Request: Mail (see Appendix B)
The request aims to catch interest and guide the recipient through the research. By setting a more personal approach, the mail contains a short personal introduction. Furthermore, it briefly introduces the background and aim of the research study. Finally, it provides links to further information about the survey and the upcoming steps. Supporting documents such as the curriculum vitae and a draft mail for forwarding the survey are attached in the mail.

2. Introduction: Online
In the next step, the gatekeeper receives via the link a brief presentation about content of the research and is able to provide some fact about his/her organization in a short survey. SoSci survey webpage is easy to use, can present details about the research with insightful images, and gives the opportunity for NPO to provide inputs about them. Additionally, it appeals different and interesting which may result to higher response rate. The survey is divided into three groups and it consists of 13 possible items:
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 6: Overview of NPO surveyGroups (12 – 13 items) Content (data type, tool)
NPO Identification7 – 8 items Name (nominal, open)
Age (numerical, open)
Field of activity (nominal, multiple choice), maximum 2 items
NPO definition (numerical, multiple choice), 4 items
Turnover Status2 items Volunteer size (numerical, open)
Current and aimed turnover rate (numerical, open)
Retention Evaluation3 items Personal evaluation (numerical, 5-scale)
Since the paper is limited, the following paragraphs solely focuses on the perspective of volunteers. Further research can be continued beyond.

3. First reminder: Phone call
After sending the request, a phone call reminds the gatekeeper about the research request and ensures the forwarding to the right contact person. Furthermore, it provides a personal impression and gives the opportunity to clarify uncertainties. That may likely increase the participation rate for the survey.

4. Invitation: Mail (see Appendix C)
After all, the draft mail can be adapted and forwarded to the volunteers and employees by the board of directors or the responsible person. It aims to introduce briefly the research and motivates them to participate. It consists of the survey link, the ID of organization in order to assign their organization and the valid period for participating in the survey.

5. Second reminder: Mail
The total period of survey is two and a half week for participation. Reminding mails to all organizations are sent to boost the participation rate in the final week.

Overall, this is an effective method mixed with standardized and adaptable instruments. It allows contacting gatekeepers and a great number of volunteers.
Sample of NPOs
The sample for the empirical research is selected for a specific group of NPO since the broad range of all areas of NPOs cannot be covered in this paper. The focus on one group has two benefits. First, the results of researching one focus group intensively are more representative and valuable. Second, the variable of distinct groups of NPOs can be set as constant in order to examine and compare other groups in follow-up researches. In total, 25 NPOs of one group are selected as sample. The focus group for this empirical research is specified by the following characteristics:
Activity group: International
They “focus their activities internationally. Such organizations promote greater intercultural understanding, provide relief during emergencies abroad, undertake development assistance, and promote human rights and peace outside the nation’s boundaries” ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER c2d6bbaf-76f3-46df-b3f7-e0f02c4f32e5 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(United Nations 2003, p 29).

Background
International NPOs provide a challenging framework for NPOs in which volunteers in Germany contribute indirectly to the main international activities and cause of NPOs. This may demand more creativity for HR and increase the scope of HR volunteer retention tools.

Source
International NPOs have an increasing relevance and there are platforms to find the sample. The 17 Sustainable Development Goals is the world agenda promised by leaders to all people everywhere. Many international NPOs around the world are supporting these goals. CONCORD, the European NGO Confederation for Relief and Development, represents over 2,600 NGOs and strengthens their political impact at the global level. It has 28 national platform in which is VENRO, the German national platform ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 110397b8-921b-4875-9478-1a04fa577d64 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(CONCORD 2017, 3–27). A part of the NPO sample can be extracted from the 126 member organizations in VENRO ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER e0e263b3-ecc5-4b81-85be-6e680fab2338 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(VENRO – Verband Entwicklungspolitik und Humanitäre Hilfe deutscher Nichtregierungsorganisationen e.V. 2016, p 21). In addition, another part of the NPO sample can be selected of “Aktion Deutschland Hilft e.V.” which is an alliance of the 13 renowned German NPOs helping people in need worldwide ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 114a3399-cdad-4777-a34f-acf3e4d37829 PFBsYWNlaG9sZGVyPg0KICA8QWRkSW5WZXJzaW9uPjUuNS4wLjE8L0FkZEluVmVyc2lvbj4NCiAgPElkPjExNGEzMzk5LWNkYWQtNDc3Ny1hMzRmLWFjZjNlNGQzNzgyOTwvSWQ+DQogIDxFbnRyaWVzPg0KICAgIDxFbnRyeT4NCiAgICAgIDxBc3NvY2lhdGVXaXRoS25vd2xlZGdlSXRlbUlkPmFhMTc0MTI3LWUxZDItNDdiNS04ZmExLTBiYTYyNDNiZTlmNTwvQXNzb2NpYXRlV2l0aEtub3dsZWRnZUl0ZW1JZD4NCiAgICAgIDxJZD4wNWEyODczNy1kYjQ3LTQ2OTMtYTEwZC00OTBiMTliZmFhMmE8L0lkPg0KICAgICAgPFBhZ2VSYW5nZT48IVtDREFUQVs8c3A+DQogIDxuPjE8L24+DQogIDxucz5PbWl0PC9ucz4NCiAgPG9zPjHigJM1Mjwvb3M+DQogIDxwcz4x4oCTNTI8L3BzPg0KPC9zcD4NCjxlcD4NCiAgPG5zPk9taXQ8L25zPg0KPC9lcD4NCjxvcz4x4oCTNTI8L29zPl1dPjwvUGFnZVJhbmdlPg0KICAgICAgPFN0YXJ0UGFnZT4x4oCTNTI8L1N0YXJ0UGFnZT4NCiAgICAgIDxOdW1lcmFsU3lzdGVtPk9taXQ8L051bWVyYWxTeXN0ZW0+DQogICAgICA8TnVtYmVyaW5nVHlwZT5QYWdlPC9OdW1iZXJpbmdUeXBlPg0KICAgICAgPFF1b3RhdGlvblR5cGU+U3VtbWFyeTwvUXVvdGF0aW9uVHlwZT4NCiAgICAgIDxSZWZlcmVuY2VJZD42YzIxZDRmMS1jMDkzLTRkMzItODI5Yy1hYmQzY2VkZGY2ZDc8L1JlZmVyZW5jZUlkPg0KICAgICAgPFJhbmdlPg0KICAgICAgICA8U3RhcnQ+MDwvU3RhcnQ+DQogICAgICAgIDxMZW5ndGg+NDI8L0xlbmd0aD4NCiAgICAgIDwvUmFuZ2U+DQogICAgICA8UmVmZXJlbmNlPg0KICAgICAgICA8UmVmZXJlbmNlVHlwZUlkPlByZXNzUmVsZWFzZTwvUmVmZXJlbmNlVHlwZUlkPg0KICAgICAgICA8QXV0aG9ycz4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8UGVyc29uPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPExhc3ROYW1lPkFrdGlvbiBEZXV0c2NobGFuZCBIaWxmdCBlLlYuPC9MYXN0TmFtZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8L1BlcnNvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgPC9BdXRob3JzPg0KICAgICAgICA8QWNjZXNzRGF0ZT4yMDE3LTA1LTMxPC9BY2Nlc3NEYXRlPg0KICAgICAgICA8RGF0ZT4yMDE3PC9EYXRlPg0KICAgICAgICA8SWQ+NmMyMWQ0ZjEtYzA5My00ZDMyLTgyOWMtYWJkM2NlZGRmNmQ3PC9JZD4NCiAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9ucz4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8QWRkcmVzcz5odHRwczovL3d3dy5ha3Rpb24tZGV1dHNjaGxhbmQtaGlsZnQuZGUvZmlsZWFkbWluL2ZtLWRhbS9wZGYvYWt0aXZfaGVsZmVuL0FrdGlvbl9EZXV0c2NobGFuZF9IaWxmdF9KYWhyZXNydWVja2JsaWNrXzIwMTYucGRmPC9BZGRyZXNzPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9uVHlwZT5FbGVjdHJvbmljQWRkcmVzczwvTG9jYXRpb25UeXBlPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDwvTG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9uPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPEFkZHJlc3M+QWt0aW9uIERldXRzY2hsYW5kIEhpbGZ0IGUuVi4gMjAxNyAtIEphaHJlc3LDvGNrYmxpY2sgMjAxNi5wZGY8L0FkZHJlc3M+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb25UeXBlPkVsZWN0cm9uaWNBZGRyZXNzPC9Mb2NhdGlvblR5cGU+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9Mb2NhdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgPC9Mb2NhdGlvbnM+DQogICAgICAgIDxPbmxpbmVBZGRyZXNzPmh0dHBzOi8vd3d3LmFrdGlvbi1kZXV0c2NobGFuZC1oaWxmdC5kZS9maWxlYWRtaW4vZm0tZGFtL3BkZi9ha3Rpdl9oZWxmZW4vQWt0aW9uX0RldXRzY2hsYW5kX0hpbGZ0X0phaHJlc3J1ZWNrYmxpY2tfMjAxNi5wZGY8L09ubGluZUFkZHJlc3M+DQogICAgICAgIDxPcmdhbml6YXRpb25zPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDxQZXJzb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TGFzdE5hbWU+QWt0aW9uIERldXRzY2hsYW5kIEhpbGZ0IGUuVi48L0xhc3ROYW1lPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDwvUGVyc29uPg0KICAgICAgICA8L09yZ2FuaXphdGlvbnM+DQogICAgICAgIDxTZXF1ZW5jZU51bWJlcj42MzwvU2VxdWVuY2VOdW1iZXI+DQogICAgICAgIDxTaG9ydFRpdGxlPkFrdGlvbiBEZXV0c2NobGFuZCBIaWxmdCBlLlYuIDIwMTcg4oCTIEphaHJlc3LDvGNrYmxpY2sgMjAxNjwvU2hvcnRUaXRsZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPFRpdGxlPkphaHJlc3LDvGNrYmxpY2sgMjAxNjwvVGl0bGU+DQogICAgICA8L1JlZmVyZW5jZT4NCiAgICA8L0VudHJ5Pg0KICA8L0VudHJpZXM+DQogIDxUZXh0PihBa3Rpb24gRGV1dHNjaGxhbmQgSGlsZnQgZS5WLiAyMDE3LCAx4oCTNTIpPC9UZXh0Pg0KICA8VGV4dFVuaXRzPg0KICAgIDxUZXh0VW5pdD4NCiAgICAgIDxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+DQogICAgICA8Rm9udE5hbWUgLz4NCiAgICAgIDxGb250U3R5bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+DQogICAgICAgIDxOYW1lIC8+DQogICAgICA8L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT4NCiAgICAgIDxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT4NCiAgICAgIDxUZXh0PihBa3Rpb24gRGV1dHNjaGxhbmQgSGlsZnQgZS5WLiAyMDE3LCAx4oCTNTIpPC9UZXh0Pg0KICAgIDwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+DQogIDwvVGV4dFVuaXRzPg0KPC9QbGFjZWhvbGRlcj4=(Aktion Deutschland Hilft e.V. 2017, 1–52). Additional NPO samples are some of the official signers of ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 01f929fc-3190-4bed-a9b0-24f5e7a0ef67 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Transparency International Deutschland e. V. (2017) that brings organizations worldwide together to end devastating impact of corruption on men, women and children around the world.
From the data collection process, volunteers from 7 out of 25 international NPOs agreed to participate in the survey, see Appendix D. These organizations with its IDs are EinDollarBrille e.V. (9005), Ingenieure ohne Grenzen e.V. (9006), Amnesty International Sektion der Bundesrepublik Deutschland e.V. (9009), Kindernothilfe e.V. (9011), Deutsche Welthungerhilfe e.V. (9013), Greenpeace e. V. (9019), and Deutsches Youth For Understanding Komitee e.V. (9025). 7 out of 25 NPOs did not respond in the period of the survey. Furthermore, 11 out of 25 NPOs declined to take part in the survey due to lack of capacity and importance in the organization. Some organizations are based heavily on employees, sponsorships and temporary volunteers who are autonomous and independent. According to them, volunteer retention is not necessary. Beside of that, the survey successfully reached a great number of participants since almost 90% of 296 people answered the items (see Appendix E) and completed the questionnaire. In addition, the data collection history (see Appendix F) proofs the effectiveness of the data collection instruments described in the previous sections.
Volunteer SurveyThe volunteer survey is the main instrument for the data collection and the following data analysis. It is generally appealing since it is anonymous and can be answered in less than 8 minutes. An overview about the 63 items-questionnaire´s structure (see Appendix G) can be found below:
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 7: Overview of the volunteer surveyGroups (63 items) Content (data type, tool)
Volunteer Identification, 9 items Organization ID (nominal, open)
Gender (ordinal, choice)
Age (numerical, open)
Duration of engagement (ordinal, multiple choice)
Workload (ordinal, multiple choice)
Volunteer definition (ordinal, multiple choice), 4 items
Motive Structure (VS), 30 items
Motive functions (numerical, 5-scale), five each
Protective
Career
Enhancement
Value
Social
Understanding
Retention tools (VT), 21 items
Tool constructs (numerical, 5-scale), three each
Orientation
Relation
Care
Development
Award
Compensation
Communication
Retention success (VR), 3 items Degree of retention (numerical, 5-scale)
Data analysisThe process of data analysis inspects, cleanses, transforms, models the input, and provides useful information about the research topic empirically. Furthermore, it can prove theoretical concepts, suggest conclusions and support decision-making. The research analysis (see Log.sps) of the data (see Data.sav) and results in this paper (see Output_all.spv) are reported in the following sections of data preparation, descriptive and inferential analysis. Abbreviations are used specifying the items in the data analysis, see Appendix G.

Data preparationThe data preparation is necessary, first, to identify the volunteer sample for further analysis since the questionnaire was accessible for the entire workforce of the NPOs and, second, to detect errors and set up the data file. The online survey produces a complete syntax file with all the collected data. The file can be downloaded from the webpage, be fully executed and analyzed with the IBM SPSS Statistics 24 software.
How many volunteers participated in the survey?
Since the target group of the research are volunteers, only those participants who are identified as volunteers proceed for further analysis. The alignment of the three items, VI01_01, VI01_02 and VI01_03, for defining volunteers must be required. As a result, 189 out of 296 people are identified as volunteers that is sufficient for the following data analysis. 107 non-volunteers are cleared from the data file since they are not going to be analyzed due to limitation in the survey.

Does the data file contain any flaws?
The item ID01_01 indicates the organization with an identity number in a specific four-coded format. Some corrections are made since the format is may be violated with inputs such as “ID 9011” instead of “9011”. This enables a standardized output and unambiguous comparison between organizations.

Is there any response bias?
According to missing data analysis, there is no significant lack of data. Overall, about 8% of the total values are missing distributed on around 97% of the total variables. In addition, about 84 cases are complete that comprises about 45% of the total cases. Therefore, it is not obligatory to modify the data further since the data is sufficient and the analysis can be executed pairwise.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3: Overall summary of missing valuesIn detail, there are ten variables missing more than 10% of the overall variables. They are completely attributed to the category of tools. It can be interpreted that some volunteers do not experience these tools in their organization. At least 134 items are valid; therefore, the pairwise analysis is preferred against list wise analysis in order to utilize most of the available data.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 8: The TOP 10 missing variablesItems Missing Valid N Mean Std. Deviation
N Percent VT01_17 55 29,1% 134 3,14 1,275
VT01_18 48 25,4% 141 2,52 1,329
VT01_16 47 24,9% 142 2,14 1,146
VT01_11 41 21,7% 148 2,55 1,377
VT01_05 36 19,0% 153 1,61 1,040
VT01_06 33 17,5% 156 2,72 1,509
VT01_12 25 13,2% 164 1,94 1,271
VT01_14 24 12,7% 165 4,15 1,146
VT01_13 22 11,6% 167 3,22 1,281
VT01_15 20 10,6% 169 3,70 1,276
Descriptive analysisDescriptive analysis provides insight about the sample and the predictability of the research results. The structure of the volunteer sample is reflected and illustrated below. It is sorted by organizations, age, gender, engagement duration and workload per week.

What is the distribution of participated volunteers among organization (ID01_01)?
Out of the sample size of 189 cases nearly 80% indicated their organization ID, in total seven organizations are represented. Deutsches Youth for Understanding Komitee e.V. (27.51%), Ingenieure ohne Grenzen e.V. (16.93%) and EinDollarBrille e.V. (16.40%) represent the majority of the sample. Together with the anonymous group mixed with all organization, they influence highly the results of the research. Other volunteers are engaged in Kindernothilfe e.V. (9.52%), Greenpeace e. V. (5.29%), Amnesty International Sektion der Bundesrepublik Deutschland e.V. (2.12%) and Deutsche Welthungerhilfe e.V. (1.59%). In summary, nearly all subareas of international organizations are classified in the research ranging from education, cultural exchange, technological assistance, health care to economic development.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4: Volunteers and their organizationWhat is the age distribution (VI02_01)?
The mean age of the participant is 35.95 years of 189 cases with a standard deviation of 17.56. A broad spectrum of volunteers are covered, the youngest volunteer in the research is 15 years and the oldest is 81 years. According to the patterns, the two age groups of 17 – 28 years and 50 – 65 years volunteers are highly represented in this survey. Less participants are found outside the two ranges. This may reflect the overall volunteer age distribution in international NPOs beyond the survey.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 5: Age distribution of volunteersHow many volunteers are male and female (VI03)?
From the 189 participants, 59.26% are female and 39.68% are male. A few volunteers (1.06%) are neither male nor female. This survey represents a relative high number of female volunteers. Female volunteer may be more likely to participate in the survey, but also can represent the higher proportion of volunteers in international NPOs.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 6: Proportion of different genderFor how long are they engaged (VI04)?
The engagement duration of volunteers is divided into five groups in this survey. Most of the people have been engaged for more than five years (37.0%) followed by those who have been engaged for 2 – 5 years (27.0%). Together, they represent the majority of (64.0%) of the sample and outweigh the “younger” groups that have been volunteering for 1 – 12 months (16.4%), 1 – 2 years (13.2%) and less than 1 month (1.1%). The sample represents largely long-term engaged volunteers, which strengthen the status of highly retained people. A small amount of data (5.3%) are missing.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 7: Volunteers and their engagement durationWhat is their workload per week (VI05)?
Five groups of volunteers dependent on their workload per week exist in this research. The low weekly workload groups of less than 5h (40.2%) and 5 – 10h (36.0%) contribute in total 76.2% to the general research results. 14.3% are volunteers who are engaged between 10 – 20h per week. The minority of people do their voluntary work for 20 – 40h (3.4%) or even more than 40h (1.1%) weekly. Resulted from this sample, there is a ratio of 1 to 40 of extremely to less engaged people. 5.3% of the data are missing.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 8: Volunteers and their workload per weekFactor analysis”Factor analysis uses mathematical procedures for the simplification of interrelated measures to discover patterns in a set of variables” ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 93308b4e-9776-4183-a58e-3d6bb2aec08b 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(Yong & Pearce 2013, p 79). The theoretical stated factors of degree of retention, motive functions and tool categories must be confirmed in order to continue with inferential analysis. In the following paragraphs, valid items for the degree of retention, motive structure and tools are explored and summarized in order to distinct factors.

Do the three items of degree of retention form a common scale?
First, the three items of the degree of retention category are confirmed in the exploratory factor analysis with component values of 0.832 (VR01_01), 0.796 (VR01_02) and 0.810 (VR01_04). Furthermore, the Cronbach´s Alpha of the resulting factor RET is 0.730 confirming the scale too.

Which items of the VFI empirically defines distinct motive functions?
Three items are extracted as not suitable for the model through several factor analysis iterations. According to that, they do not clearly contribute to one specific component because these items tend to be abstract and explain a broader spectrum of components. Therefore, these items are excluded.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 9: Invalid items for forming motives functions Item Description
VV01_10 Ich kann meine Stärken kennenlernen.

VV01_19 Durch meine Freiwilligentätigkeit fühle ich mich besser.

VV01_28 Die Freiwilligentätigkeit nimmt mir etwas vom “Schuldgefühl”, besser dran zu sein als andere.

Seven distinct components are found for the motive structure and further analysis. Component 1 (V_CAR) fully reflects and confirms the Career function. Component 2 (V_UND2) extends the Understanding function with two items describing social networking and self-actualization. This may be explained that people perceive more dimensions of learning. Component 3 (V_PRO2) explains the Protective function excluding VV01_28, reasons are explained above. Component 4 (V_SOC) completely represents the Social function. Component 5 (V_VAL2) consist of three items of the Value function and characterizes it mostly. Component 6 (V_ENH2) consists of three items of the Enhancement function and represents it mostly. Component 7 (V_COM) describes the compassion of volunteers for those people receiving the benefits of their voluntary work, therefore distinguishes from Component 1. Eventually, their reliabilities are confirmed and listed below.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 10: The seven motive components derived from multiple factor analysisFactor Cronbach´s Alpha Items with component values
Component 1
= V_CAR .886 VV01_21 (.785), VV01_22 (.812), VV01_23 (.690), VV01_24 (.811), VV01_25 (.792)
Component 2
= V_UND2 .814 VV01_20 (.523), VV01_05 (.744), VV01_06 (.744), VV01_07 (.741), VV01_08 (.632), VV01_09 (.687)
Component 3
= V_PRO2 .805 VV01_26 (.836), VV01_27 (.684), VV01_29 (.763), VV01_30 (.806)
Component 4
= V_SOC .780 VV01_11 (.722), VV01_12 (.503), VV01_13 (.743), VV01_14 (.801), VV01_15 (.777)
Component 5
= V_VAL2 .739 VV01_01 (.809), VV01_03 (.779), VV01_04 (.693)
Component 6
= V_ENH2 .754 VV01_16 (.729), VV01_17 (.711), VV01_18 (.761)
Component 7
= V_COM – VV01_02 (.769)
Which items of the tool category create distinct tools?
According to the factor analysis, ten items of the tool items are invalid for creating and assigning to distinct factors. As a result, four distinct components are formed of eleven items. Component 1 (T_ORI2) consists of items of Volunteer Orientation, Volunteer Care and Volunteer Communication. It seems that volunteers perceive them as combined tool so that Volunteer Orientation is about appreciating volunteers as a person and informing them about the organization from the beginning. Component 2 (T_REL2) combines Volunteer Relations and Volunteer Communication items, it is perceived by volunteers as a single tool where the social event is also a communication platform for exchanging information about activities and announcement. Component 3 (T_AWA) fully reflects Volunteer Award. Component 4 (T_COM2) reduces Volunteer Compensation to one item that only reflects the reimbursement of expenses. Furthermore, the reliability analysis confirms the four factors.
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 11: The four tool components derived from multiple factor analysisFactor Cronbach´s Alpha Items with component values
Component 1
= T_ORI2 .724 VT01_01 (.619), VT01_03 (.786), VT01_10 (.639), VT01_21 (.734)
Component 2
= T_REL2 .717 VT01_07 (.788), VT01_08 (.809), VT01_20 (.719)
Component 3
= T_AWA .697 VT01_16 (.740), VT01_17 (.719), VT01_18 (.817)
Component 4
= T_COM2 – VT01_04 (.905)
Summary of explored factors
The exploratory factor analysis reduces the set of variables to 12 distinct factors for further analysis. The mean values of items of each factors and its descriptive statistics are listed below. The analysis is executed list wise.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 12: Summary of all derived factorsFactor N Min Max Mean Std. Deviation Variance
RET 178 1.67 5.00 4.2790 .74589 .556
V_CAR 180 1.00 5.00 2.8681 1.10820 1.228
V_UND2 180 1.00 5.00 4.4141 .58911 .347
V_PRO2 180 1.00 5.00 2.4353 .89459 .800
V_SOC 180 1.00 5.00 2.9351 .81268 .660
V_VAL2 180 1.33 5.00 4.2037 .68289 .466
V_ENH2 180 1.33 5.00 3.6194 .79087 .625
T_COM 177 1.00 5.00 3.3672 1.30804 1.711
T_ORI2 177 1.50 5.00 3.9793 .76079 .579
T_REL2 177 2.00 5.00 4.4510 .59997 .360
T_AWA 158 1.00 5.00 2.5981 1.05042 1.103
T_COM2 173 1.00 5.00 3.8555 1.48517 2.206
Valid N (list wise) 154 What are the total effects of factors on the degree of retention?The following analysis specify significant factors, based on the previous paragraph, as predictors for the degree of retention. The total effect of a factor on the degree of retention is its sum of direct and indirect effect on it. In the following paragraphs, correlations and regression analysis are performed on RET, the factor of degree of retention, and the resulting possible intermediate variables. The results are interpreted in the end.

Which factors have significant correlation with RET?
The Pearson Correlation table shows the five factors that have significant correlation with the degree of retention factor. T_ORI2 (.515) has the highest positive contribution to the degree of retention followed by V_UND2 (.370) and T_REL2 (.366). V_VAL2 and V_ENH2 have a significant but low correlation to RET.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 13: Significant correlations with the degree of retentionFactors RET V_UND2 V_VAL2 V_ENH2 T_ORI2 T_REL2
Correlation 1 .370 .238 .184 .515 .366
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .001 .014 .000 .000
N 178 178 178 178 176 176
What is the regression model for those correlating factors?
In the process of a stepwise regression analysis, two of five variables are significant predictors for the degree of retention. They show direct effects on RET. In the first model, T_ORI predicts the degree of retention, RET = 0.505*T_ORI + 2.271. Its standardized direct effect on RET is .515. The second model adds V_UND2 as second predictor and changes the coefficients, RET = 0.432*T_ORI + 0.285*V_UND2 + 1.302. Its standardized direct effect on RET is .441 for T_ORI2 and .225 for V_UND2.
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 14: Regression models for the degree of retentionModel Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.

B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 2.271 .258 8.797 .000
T_ORI2 .505 .064 .515 7.920 .000
2 (Constant) 1.302 .382 3.408 .001
T_ORI2 .432 .066 .441 6.594 .000
V_UND2 .285 .085 .225 3.366 .001
What are the indirect effects on the degree of retention by motive functions and tools?
Considerable direct effects via T_ORI2 and V_UND2 may exist even if other factor do not have a direct effect on the degree of retention. First, the correlation among of other factors with T_ORI2 and V_UND2 are explored and, second, a regression analysis is executed on the high correlating factors to find significant indirect contribution to RET.

Which factors of the motives functions and tools have significant correlations with T_ORI2 and V_UND2?
V_UND2, V_ENH2, T_REL2, T_AWA and T_COM2 are correlated with T_ORI2 with the following Pearson Correlation values and can be analyzed for regression.Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 15: Factor correlations with T_ORI2Factors T_ORI2 V_UND2 V_ENH2 T_REL2 T_AWA T_COM2
Correlation 1 .328 .250 .444 .280 .206
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 .006
N 177 177 177 177 158 173
V_CAR, V_VAL2, V_ENH, T_ORI2 and T_REL2 are correlated with V_UND2 with the following Pearson Correlation values and can be analyzed for regression.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 16: Factor correlations with V_UND2Factors V_UND2 V_CAR V_VAL2 V_ENH2 T_ORI2 T_REL2
Correlation 1 .427 .320 .387 .328 .379
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 .000
N 180 180 180 180 177 177
What are the regression models for those significantly correlating factors?
The regression model for T_ORI2 is analyzed systematically for two set ups. The first set up shows T_REL2 as single significant predictor, T_ORI2 = 0.563*T_REL2 + 1.474. The second one consist of T_REL2 and V_ENH2 as significant predictors, T_ORI2 = 0.534*T_REL2 + 0.195*V_ENH2 + 0.900. Their standardized coefficients are .421 for T_REL2 and .202 for V_ENH2.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 17: Regression models for T_ORI2Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.

B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 1.474 .410 3.597 .000
T_REL2 .563 .091 .444 6.166 .000
2 (Constant) .900 .448 2.007 .046
T_REL2 .534 .090 .421 5.940 .000
V_ENH2 .195 .068 .202 2.857 .005
Four regression models are analyzed for V_UND2. The fourth model, with all variables, consists of the significant predictors V_CAR, T_REL2, V_VAL2 and V_ENH2 determining V_UND2 = 0.158*V_CAR + 0.265*T_REL2 + 0.202*V_VAL2 + 0.151*V_ENH2 + 1.381. The standardized coefficients are .298 for V_CAR, .270 for T_REL2, .234 for V_VAL2 and .203 for V_ENH2.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 18: Regression models for V_UND2Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.

B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 3.763 .112 33.691 .000
V_CAR .227 .036 .427 6.243 .000
2 (Constant) 2.470 .288 8.564 .000
V_CAR .198 .035 .373 5.699 .000
T_REL2 .309 .064 .315 4.814 .000
3 (Constant) 1.669 .331 5.036 .000
V_CAR .197 .033 .371 5.952 .000
T_REL2 .271 .062 .276 4.388 .000
V_VAL2 .232 .053 .268 4.329 .000
4 (Constant) 1.381 .337 4.103 .000
V_CAR .158 .035 .298 4.577 .000
T_REL2 .265 .060 .270 4.401 .000
V_VAL2 .202 .053 .234 3.807 .000
V_ENH2 .151 .049 .203 3.099 .002
Total effects of factors on the degree of retention
According to the correlation and regression analysis six factors affecting RET are found. The two direct predictors are T_ORI2 and V_UND2 and the four indirect predictors are V_ENH2, V_CAR, T_REL2 and V_VAL2. The highest impact has T_ORI2 (.441) followed by T_REL2 (.246) which has a considerable indirect effect outperforming V_UND2 (.225). The initial high correlation of T_REL2 with RET can now be explained by its indirect effect. Other predictors, such as V_ENH2 (.135), V_CAR (.067) and V_VAL2 (.053), have low or even no effect on RET.
For further calculations:
Total effect = Direct effect + Indirect effect
Indirect effect of X on Z = Direct effect of X on Y * Direct effect of Y on Z
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 19: Summary of factor´s total effects on the degree of retentionRank Factor Total effect Direct effect Indirect effect via T_ORI2 Indirect effect via V_UND2
1 T_ORI2 0.441 0.441 3 V_UND2 0.225 0.225 4 V_ENH2 0.135 0.202*0.441 0.203*0.225
5 V_CAR 0.067 0.298*0.225
2 T_REL2 0.246 0.421*0.441 0.270*0.225
6 V_VAL2 0.053 0.234*0.225
In summary, volunteers are most likely to be retained if they receive good orientation from the beginning, be appreciated as an individual and are well informed about organization. Their motivation of learning new abilities, gaining experience of what personally matters and getting to know new people is also a good predictor for long-term engagement. Organizing social events for volunteers can attract them and support good orientation, personal appreciation and communication but not directly cause volunteer retention.Analyzing differences between groupsADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER f48726ba-5d70-4ae6-8a7b-f9ed5387e861 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Khan Academy (2017) defined the analysis of variances (ANOVA) “a collection of methods for comparing multiple means across different groups.” After the difference is significantly measured, there are post hoc tests to quantify the result. Based on the literature of Andy Field, Discovering Statistics Using SPSS, Sage, 2013 and ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER c7bf39f3-08d9-4177-a5cb-76aa51a5959a 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Keller (2015), several post hoc test are recommended and distinguished by criteria such as normal distribution, difference in variances, simple size and error types. The difference of variances can be measured by Levene´s test. “Levene’s approach is powerful and robust to nonnormality and became a very popular tool for checking the homogeneity of variances” ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 7b89829c-dc13-4ee0-84b3-b1755ab0dc1c 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(Gastwirth, Gel & Miao 2009, p 1). In the following paragraphs the degree of retention are compared among organizations (ID01_01), age (VI02_01), gender (VI03), workload per week (VI05) and engagement duration (VI04) of volunteers.
How does the degree of retention depend on the organization (ID01_01)?
According to the descriptive analysis, total mean of RET is 4.270 which represents the orange line in the plot. All organizations retain their volunteers very well. There are significant differences of variances between the organization according to ANOVA (.020) and Levene´s (0.022). Therefore, the Games-Howell test is performed to compare RET in these groups. As a result, there is no significant difference of RET between organization except for 9019 that has the highest mean and a significant difference of .91129 compared to 9006 but a relatively low sample size of 8.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 9: Mean RET comparison between IDsHow does the degree of retention depend on age (VI02_01)?
The group difference analysis does not show any significant differences of RET within the age distribution. According to the Pearson Correlation matrix and the scatter plot between RET and age, there is nearly no linear correlation between these two variables. The suggestion of forming specific age groups may help to find some meaningful differences. Taken from the scatter plot and the age distribution of participants, the following three age groups can be formed and analyzed: (1) 15 – 29 years, (2) 30 – 59 years, and (3) 60 – 81 years. This can be interpreted as (1) student and young professional group, (2) main working and family groups, (3) early and main retiree groups. As a result of the age group analysis, (3) has with a sample size of 28 the highest mean of 4.5119, (1) has with a sample size of 52 the lowest mean of 4.1346, and (2) has with a sample size of 98 the mean of 4.2891 which is slightly above the total average. There is close significant difference of variance between the groups stated by ANOVA (.095) and Levene´s test (.135). In this case, the LSD, a post hoc test, indicates significant differences of RET mean between (3) and (2) by .37729.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 10: Mean RET comparison between age groupsIn conclusion, the interpretation of the analysis and groups can be confirmed as follows: Early and main retiree groups (3) are likely to look for meaningful activities after quitting their job, students and young professionals (1) probably search experiences until they (2) have less time to perform any voluntary work since they may have to focus on family and work.

How does the degree of retention depend on gender (VI03)?
The gender group is categorized into three groups, (1) Male, (2) Female and (3) Others. The variances among the gender groups is not significantly different, ANOVA (.167) and Levene (.134). Female represented with biggest largest size of 104 has an average RET of 4.3462 followed by Male with a sample size of 72 and an average RET of 4.1667 which is just below the average mean of 4.279. Others achieved the highest mean score of 4.833 RET but is only represented by two cases.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 11: Mean RET comparison between gender groupsHow does the degree of retention depend on engagement duration (VI04)?
The engagement duration of volunteer are measured in five groups, (1) < 1, (2) 1 – 12 months, (3) 1 – 2 years, (4) 2 – 5 years and (5) > 5 years. There is no significant difference in variances derived by ANOVA (.469) and Levene´s test (.467). From the LSD test, no significant differences of RET are found between groups of engagement duration. The means plot probably indicates some linear correlation.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 12: Mean RET comparison between engagement duration groupsHowever, there is also no significant (.265) correlation between RET and VI04 found. Consequently, the engagement duration past and further retention of volunteers are independent from each other. There is no chance for valid prediction.

How does the degree of retention depend on workload per week (VI05)?
People performing different voluntary workloads per week may influence their long-term engagement. According to ANOVA (.023) and Levene (.012), there is a significant difference of variances between the workload groups (1) < 5h, (2) 5 -10h, (3) 10 – 20h, (4) 20 – 40h and (5) > 40h. The Games-Howell, a post hoc test, shows that (5), with a sample size of two cases, has a mean value of 5.0 and the highest mean RET with significant difference against (3) by .66667, (2) by .55882 and (1) by .92105. Group (3) and (4) are not significantly differentiated from other groups, whereas (2), with a sample size of 68, is significantly better by .36223 than (1), with a similar sample size of 76.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 13: Mean RET comparison between workload groupsHigher workload per week may be the result of highly retained volunteers. It is not usual that higher workloads for volunteers increase retention since volunteering is free and would be a high opportunity cost. Due to high similarities for linear correlation, a linear regression analysis is executed. It successfully confirms the hypothesis with significance levels of .007 and .037. The resulting equation is VI05 = 0.240*RET + 0.799 with a standardized coefficient of .202. Therefore, the higher the degree of retention of volunteers the more they contribute to the organization. This highlights the importance of volunteer retention.

Results & OutlookThe empirical research focused on volunteer retention in 25 international nonprofit organizations in Germany. As a result, two modified factors of the theoretical stated concept appear to be significant predictors for retaining volunteers independent of their organization, age, gender, and engagement duration. First, the motivation of learning new perspectives and abilities (VV01_06, VV01_07, VV01_08), gaining experience of what personally matters (VV01_05), and getting to know new people (VV01_09, VV01_20) is essential for long-term engagement. Second, volunteers are most likely to be retained when they receive good orientation from the beginning (VT01_01, VT01_03), be appreciated as an individual (VT01_10), and are well informed about organization (VT01_21). Both can be interpreted as hygiene factor for volunteer retention. Although social and informative events for volunteers do not have a direct impact on a higher degree of retention (VT01_07, VT01_08, VT01_20), they indirectly and markedly contribute to retention success. Other items and factors explored do not contribute notably, total effect lower than 0.200, to retention. By comparing groups, higher degree of retention is found to cause significantly to higher voluntary contribution based on the workload per week (VI05). Additionally, the age group of early and main retirees between 60 and 81 should be preferred against the age group of workers between 30 and 59 since they show significantly higher degree of retention. No significant differences in the degree of retention are found for the age group below 30, gender, engagement duration, and the organization sample.

Nonprofit organizations can use the empirically proven items of motives for identifying and predicting long-term volunteers. Furthermore, they can implement the suggested retention tools in order to increase the satisfaction level of volunteers, the bonding to the organization and the workload per week. Additionally, they can reduce potential turnover cost generated by volunteer leave.

The empirical research on volunteer retention should be extended to other groups of nonprofit organizations, countries, and other variables to gain an overall understanding and scientific evidence about effective tools to improve the nonprofit sector, the worldwide economy and the quality of life.

ADDIN CITAVI.BIBLIOGRAPHY PD94bWwgdmVyc2lvbj0iMS4wIiBlbmNvZGluZz0idXRmLTE2Ij8+PEJpYmxpb2dyYXBoeT48QWRkSW5WZXJzaW9uPjUuNS4wLjE8L0FkZEluVmVyc2lvbj48SWQ+YmJhYzIwMTAtZjZjMi00NmY3LTllMzQtNzJhZGZmYjE5MzIxPC9JZD48QmlibGlvZ3JhcGh5Q2l0YXRpb24+PEhlYWRpbmc+PFRleHRVbml0cz48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPnRydWU8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5hbWU+Q2l0YXZpIEJpYmxpb2dyYXBoeSBIZWFkaW5nPC9OYW1lPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5SZWZlcmVuY2VzPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmFtZT5DaXRhdmkgQmlibGlvZ3JhcGh5IEVudHJ5PC9OYW1lPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48L1RleHRVbml0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXRzPjwvSGVhZGluZz48Q2l0YXRpb25zPjxDaXRhdGlvbj48VGV4dFVuaXRzPjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD4xJmFtcDsxIEludGVybmV0IFNFIDIwMTYsIDwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PEl0YWxpYz50cnVlPC9JdGFsaWM+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+RsO8bmYgaW50ZXJlc3NhbnRlIE9ubGluZS1VbWZyYWdlLVRvb2xzIGltIFZlcmdsZWljaDwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+dHJ1ZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PiwgMSZhbXA7MSBJbnRlcm5ldCBTRS4gQXZhaWxhYmxlIGZyb206IGh0dHBzOi8vaG9zdGluZy4xdW5kMS5kZS9kaWdpdGFsZ3VpZGUvb25saW5lLW1hcmtldGluZy92ZXJrYXVmZW4taW0taW50ZXJuZXQvb25saW5lLXVtZnJhZ2UtdG9vbHMtaW0tdmVyZ2xlaWNoLyBbMTIgSnVuZSAyMDE3XS48L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+QWt0aW9uIERldXRzY2hsYW5kIEhpbGZ0IGUuVi4gMjAxNywgPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48SXRhbGljPnRydWU8L0l0YWxpYz48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5KYWhyZXNyw7xja2JsaWNrIDIwMTY8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPnRydWU8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD4uIEF2YWlsYWJsZSBmcm9tOiBodHRwczovL3d3dy5ha3Rpb24tZGV1dHNjaGxhbmQtaGlsZnQuZGUvZmlsZWFkbWluL2ZtLWRhbS9wZGYvYWt0aXZfaGVsZmVuL0FrdGlvbl9EZXV0c2NobGFuZF9IaWxmdF9KYWhyZXNydWVja2JsaWNrXzIwMTYucGRmIFszMSBNYXkgMjAxN10uPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PkFtbmVzdHkgSW50ZXJuYXRpb25hbCBTZWt0aW9uIGRlciBCdW5kZXNyZXB1YmxpayBEZXV0c2NobGFuZCBlLlYuIDIwMTYsIDwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PEl0YWxpYz50cnVlPC9JdGFsaWM+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+QW1uZXN0eSBJbnRlcm5hdGlvbmFsIFJlY2hlbnNjaGFmdHNiZXJpY2h0IDIwMTU8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPnRydWU8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD4uIEF2YWlsYWJsZSBmcm9tOiBodHRwczovL3d3dy5hbW5lc3R5LmRlL2ZpbGVzL0FtbmVzdHktSW50ZXJuYXRpb25hbC1EZXV0c2NobGFuZC1SZWNoZW5zY2hhZnRzYmVyaWNodDIwMTUucGRmIFsyOSBNYXkgMjAxN10uPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PsOEcnp0ZSBvaG5lIEdyZW56ZW4gZS5WLiAyMDE2LCA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxJdGFsaWM+dHJ1ZTwvSXRhbGljPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PkphaHJlc2JlcmljaHQgMjAxNTwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+dHJ1ZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0Pi4gQXZhaWxhYmxlIGZyb206IGh0dHBzOi8vd3d3LmFlcnp0ZS1vaG5lLWdyZW56ZW4uZGUvc2l0ZXMvZ2VybWFueS9maWxlcy9hdHRhY2htZW50cy9hZXJ6dGUtb2huZS1ncmVuemVuLWphaHJlc2JlcmljaHQtMjAxNS5wZGYgWzI5IE1heSAyMDE3XS48L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPnRydWU8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5Bc2doYXIsIEggMjAxNSwgJ1RoZSBWb2x1bnRlZXIgRnVuY3Rpb25zIEludmVudG9yeTogRXhhbWluYXRpb24gb2YgRGltZW5zaW9uLCBTY2FsZSBSZWxpYWJpbGl0eSBhbmQgQ29ycmVsYXRlcycuPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PkFXTyBJbnRlcm5hdGlvbmFsIGUuIFYuIDIwMTYsIDwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PEl0YWxpYz50cnVlPC9JdGFsaWM+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+SmFocmVzYmVyaWNodCAyMDE1PC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj50cnVlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+LiBBdmFpbGFibGUgZnJvbTogaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cuYXdvaW50ZXJuYXRpb25hbC5kZS9maWxlYWRtaW4vZGF0ZWllbi9pbmZvdGhlay9BV09pbnRfSmFocmVzYmVyaWNodDIwMTVfd2ViLnBkZiBbMzAgTWF5IDIwMTddLjwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5CYXZhcmlhbiBNaW5pc3RyeSBvZiBGaW5hbmNlIDIwMTQsIDwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PEl0YWxpYz50cnVlPC9JdGFsaWM+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+TWVya2JsYXR0IHp1IFphaGx1bmdlbiBmw7xyIGVocmVuYW10bGljaGUgVMOkdGlna2VpdGVuIC0gw5xidW5nc2xlaXRlcmZyZWliZXRyYWcgdW5kIEVocmVuYW10c3BhdXNjaGFsZSwgPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj50cnVlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+TXVuaWNoLiBBdmFpbGFibGUgZnJvbTogaHR0cDovL3d3dy5zdG1mbGguYmF5ZXJuLmRlL3N0ZXVlcm4vZWhyZW5hbXRzcGF1c2NoYWxlLzA2MDAzMDA2XzIucGRmIFsyMSBNYXkgMjAxN10uPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PkJpZXJob2ZmLCBIVyAyMDAyLCA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxJdGFsaWM+dHJ1ZTwvSXRhbGljPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PlByb3NvY2lhbCBiZWhhdmlvdXIsIDwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+dHJ1ZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PlBzeWNob2xvZ3ksIEhvdmUuPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PkJpc2Now7ZmbGljaGVzIEhpbGZzd2VyayBNSVNFUkVPUiBlLiBWLiAyMDE2LCA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxJdGFsaWM+dHJ1ZTwvSXRhbGljPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PkphaHJlc2JlcmljaHQgMjAxNTwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+dHJ1ZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0Pi4gQXZhaWxhYmxlIGZyb206IGh0dHBzOi8vd3d3Lm1pc2VyZW9yLmRlL2ZpbGVhZG1pbi9wdWJsaWthdGlvbmVuL2phaHJlc2JlcmljaHQtMjAxNS5wZGYgWzMwIE1heSAyMDE3XS48L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+QnJvdCBmw7xyIGRpZSBXZWx0IOKAkyBFdmFuZ2VsaXNjaGVyIEVudHdpY2tsdW5nc2RpZW5zdCAyMDE2LCA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxJdGFsaWM+dHJ1ZTwvSXRhbGljPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PkphaHJlc2JlcmljaHQgMjAxNTwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+dHJ1ZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0Pi4gQXZhaWxhYmxlIGZyb206IGh0dHBzOi8vd3d3LmJyb3QtZnVlci1kaWUtd2VsdC5kZS9maWxlYWRtaW4vbWVkaWFwb29sLzQwX1VlYmVyLXVucy9CZmRXX0phaHJlc2JlcmljaHQyMDE1LnBkZiBbMjkgTWF5IDIwMTddLjwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5CeWZvcmQsIE0sIFdhdGtpbnMsIE1EICZhbXA7IFRyaWFudG9naWFubmlzLCBMIDIwMTcsICdPbmJvYXJkaW5nIElzbuKAmXQgRW5vdWdoJywgPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48SXRhbGljPnRydWU8L0l0YWxpYz48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5IYXJ2YXJkIEJ1c2luZXNzIFJldmlldzwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+dHJ1ZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0Pi4gQXZhaWxhYmxlIGZyb206IGh0dHBzOi8vaGJyLm9yZy8yMDE3LzA1L29uYm9hcmRpbmctaXNudC1lbm91Z2ggWzE0IE1heSAyMDE3XS48L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+Q0FSRSBEZXV0c2NobGFuZC1MdXhlbWJ1cmcgZS5WLiAyMDE2LCA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxJdGFsaWM+dHJ1ZTwvSXRhbGljPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PkphaHJlc2JlcmljaHQgMjAxNTwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+dHJ1ZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0Pi4gQXZhaWxhYmxlIGZyb206IGh0dHBzOi8vd3d3LmNhcmUuZGUvZmlsZWFkbWluL3VzZXJfdXBsb2FkL1ByZXNzZS9Eb3dubG9hZHMvSmFocmVzYmVyaWNodGUvQ0FSRV9KYWhyZXNiZXJpY2h0XzIwMTUucGRmIFszMCBNYXkgMjAxN10uPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PkNPTkNPUkQgMjAxNywgPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48SXRhbGljPnRydWU8L0l0YWxpYz48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5DT05DT1JEIEFOTlVBTMKgUkVQT1JUIDIwMTY8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPnRydWU8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD4uIEF2YWlsYWJsZSBmcm9tOiBodHRwczovL2NvbmNvcmRldXJvcGUub3JnLzIwMTcvMDQvMjcvMjAxNi1hbm51YWwtcmVwb3J0LyBbMjcgTWF5IDIwMTddLjwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5Db3NhY2ssIFMsIEd1dGhyaWRnZSwgTSAmYW1wOyBMYXdzb24sIEUgMjAxMCwgPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48SXRhbGljPnRydWU8L0l0YWxpYz48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5SZXRhaW5pbmcga2V5IGVtcGxveWVlcyBpbiB0aW1lcyBvZiBjaGFuZ2U8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPnRydWU8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD4uIEF2YWlsYWJsZSBmcm9tOiBodHRwOi8vd3d3Lm1ja2luc2V5LmNvbS9idXNpbmVzcy1mdW5jdGlvbnMvb3JnYW5pemF0aW9uL291ci1pbnNpZ2h0cy9yZXRhaW5pbmcta2V5LWVtcGxveWVlcy1pbi10aW1lcy1vZi1jaGFuZ2UgWzEyIE1heSAyMDE3XS48L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+Q3Jlc3dlbGwsIEpXIDIwMTUsIDwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PEl0YWxpYz50cnVlPC9JdGFsaWM+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+QSBDb25jaXNlIEludHJvZHVjdGlvbiB0byBNaXhlZCBNZXRob2RzIFJlc2VhcmNoLCA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPnRydWU8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5TQUdFLCBMb3MgQW5nZWxlcy48L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+REFIVyBEZXV0c2NoZSBMZXByYS0gdW5kIFR1YmVya3Vsb3NlaGlsZmUgZS5WLiAyMDE2LCA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxJdGFsaWM+dHJ1ZTwvSXRhbGljPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PkRBSFcgSmFocmViZXJpY2h0IDIwMTU8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPnRydWU8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD4uIEF2YWlsYWJsZSBmcm9tOiBodHRwOi8vd3d3LmRhaHcuZGUvbWVkaWEvZmlsZS8xNzYyLkRBSFdfSmFocmVzYmVyaWNodDIwMTVfd2ViLnBkZiBbMjcgTWF5IDIwMTddLjwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5EZWxvaXR0ZSBVbml2ZXJzaXR5IFByZXNzLCA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxJdGFsaWM+dHJ1ZTwvSXRhbGljPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PjIwMTcgRGVsb2l0dGUgR2xvYmFsIEh1bWFuIENhcGl0YWwgVHJlbmRzPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0Pi4gPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48SXRhbGljPnRydWU8L0l0YWxpYz48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5SZXdyaXRpbmcgdGhlIHJ1bGVzIGZvciB0aGUgZGlnaXRhbCBhZ2UgPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj50cnVlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+WzIxIEFwcmlsIDIwMTddLjwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5EZXV0c2NoZSBXZWx0aHVuZ2VyaGlsZmUgZS5WLiAyMDE2LCA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxJdGFsaWM+dHJ1ZTwvSXRhbGljPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PkphaHJlc2JlcmljaHQgMjAxNTwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+dHJ1ZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0Pi4gQXZhaWxhYmxlIGZyb206IGh0dHA6Ly93d3cud2VsdGh1bmdlcmhpbGZlLmRlL3VlYmVyLXVucy9tZWRpYXRoZWsvd2hoLWFydGlrZWwvd2hoLWFydGlrZWxqYWhyZXNiZXJpY2h0LTIwMTYtZmFjdHMuaHRtbDVCYWN0aW9uJTVEPXNpbmdsZURvd25sb2FkIFszMCBNYXkgMjAxN10uPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PkRldXRzY2hlcyBLb21pdGVlIGbDvHIgVU5JQ0VGIGUuVi4gMjAxNiwgPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48SXRhbGljPnRydWU8L0l0YWxpYz48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5HZXNjaMOkZnRzYmVyaWNodCAyMDE1PC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj50cnVlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+LiBBdmFpbGFibGUgZnJvbTogaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cudW5pY2VmLmRlL2Jsb2IvMTEzNTc2L2Q3MzI1M2Q1NjIyMmRiNjZhNjY5NjdjYjRkNTY3NjY1L3VuaWNlZi1nZXNjaGFlZnRzYmVyaWNodC0yMDE1LWRhdGEucGRmIFszMCBNYXkgMjAxN10uPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PkRldXRzY2hlcyBSb3RlcyBLcmV1eiBlLlYuIDIwMTcsIDwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PEl0YWxpYz50cnVlPC9JdGFsaWM+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+RGFzIEphaHJidWNoIDIwMTY8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPnRydWU8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD4uIEF2YWlsYWJsZSBmcm9tOiBodHRwczovL3d3dy5kcmsuZGUvZmlsZWFkbWluL3VzZXJfdXBsb2FkL1BERnMvUHJlc3NlL0phaHJidWVjaGVyL0RSS19KYWhyYnVjaF8yMDE2LnBkZiBbMjkgTWF5IDIwMTddLjwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5EZXV0c2NoZXMgWW91dGggRm9yIFVuZGVyc3RhbmRpbmcgS29taXRlZSBlLlYuIDIwMTYsIDwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PEl0YWxpYz50cnVlPC9JdGFsaWM+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+SmFocmVzYmVyaWNodCAyMDE0PC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj50cnVlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+LiBBdmFpbGFibGUgZnJvbTogaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cueWZ1LmRlL2F0dGFjaG1lbnQvNDEyL2Rvd25sb2FkL3lmdV9qYWhyZXNiZXJpY2h0XzIwMTQucGRmIFsyNyBKdW5lIDIwMTddLjwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5FaW5Eb2xsYXJCcmlsbGUgZS5WLiAyMDE3LCA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxJdGFsaWM+dHJ1ZTwvSXRhbGljPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PkphaHJlc2JlcmljaHQgMjAxNjwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+dHJ1ZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0Pi4gQXZhaWxhYmxlIGZyb206IGh0dHBzOi8vd3d3LmVpbmRvbGxhcmJyaWxsZS5kZS9hc3NldHMvY29udGVudC1pbWFnZXMvQWJvdXRfVXMvRWluRG9sbGFyQnJpbGxlX0phaHJlc2JlcmljaHRfMjAxNl9XZWIucGRmIFsyOSBNYXkgMjAxN10uPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PkZldHplciBJbnN0aXR1dGUgMjAxNywgPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48SXRhbGljPnRydWU8L0l0YWxpYz48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5TZWxmIFJlcG9ydCBNZWFzdXJlcyBmb3IgTG92ZSBhbmQgQ29tcGFzc2lvbiBSZXNlYXJjaDogSGVscGluZyBPdGhlcnM8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+LiA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxJdGFsaWM+dHJ1ZTwvSXRhbGljPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PlZPTFVOVEVFUiBGVU5DVElPTlMgSU5WRU5UT1JZIChWRkkpPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj50cnVlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+LiBBdmFpbGFibGUgZnJvbTogaHR0cDovL2ZldHplci5vcmcvc2l0ZXMvZGVmYXVsdC9maWxlcy9pbWFnZXMvc3Rvcmllcy9wZGYvc2VsZm1lYXN1cmVzL0hFTFBJTkdfT1RIRVJTLnBkZiBbMTUgSnVseSAyMDE3XS48L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+R2FsbG8sIEEgMjAwOSwgJ0dpdmluZyBhIEhpZ2ggUGVyZm9ybWVyIFByb2R1Y3RpdmUgRmVlZGJhY2snLCA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxJdGFsaWM+dHJ1ZTwvSXRhbGljPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PkhhcnZhcmQgQnVzaW5lc3MgUmV2aWV3PC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj50cnVlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+LiBBdmFpbGFibGUgZnJvbTogaHR0cHM6Ly9oYnIub3JnLzIwMDkvMTIvZ2l2aW5nLWEtaGlnaC1wZXJmb3JtZXItcHJvZHVjIFsxNCBNYXkgMjAxN10uPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0Pkdhc3R3aXJ0aCwgSkwsIEdlbCwgWVIgJmFtcDsgTWlhbywgVyAyMDA5LCA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxJdGFsaWM+dHJ1ZTwvSXRhbGljPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PlRoZSBJbXBhY3Qgb2YgTGV2ZW5l4oCZcyBUZXN0IG9mIEVxdWFsaXR5IG9mIFZhcmlhbmNlcyBvbiBTdGF0aXN0aWNhbCBUaGVvcnkgYW5kIFByYWN0aWNlPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj50cnVlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+LiBBdmFpbGFibGUgZnJvbTogaHR0cHM6Ly9hcnhpdi5vcmcvcGRmLzEwMTAuMDMwOC5wZGYgWzIzIEp1bHkgMjAxN10uPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0Pkdlcm1hbiBEb2N0b3JzIGUuVi4gMjAxNywgPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48SXRhbGljPnRydWU8L0l0YWxpYz48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5KYWhyZXNiZXJpY2h0IDIwMTY8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPnRydWU8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD4uIEF2YWlsYWJsZSBmcm9tOiBodHRwczovL3d3dy5nZXJtYW4tZG9jdG9ycy5kZS9kZS9ha3R1ZWxsZXMvbmFjaHJpY2h0ZW4vamFocmVzYmVyaWNodC0yMDE2IFsyNyBKdW5lIDIwMTddLjwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5HZXJtYW53YXRjaCBlLlYuIDIwMTYsIDwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PEl0YWxpYz50cnVlPC9JdGFsaWM+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+UmVjaGVuc2NoYWZ0c2JlcmljaHQgZGVzIFZvcnN0YW5kcyAyMDE1LTIwMTY8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPnRydWU8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD4uIEF2YWlsYWJsZSBmcm9tOiBodHRwOi8vZ2VybWFud2F0Y2gub3JnL2RlL2Rvd25sb2FkLzE2NDMyLnBkZiBbMjUgSnVuZSAyMDE3XS48L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+R0hLIElDRiAyMDEwLCA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxJdGFsaWM+dHJ1ZTwvSXRhbGljPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PlN0dWR5IG9uIFZvbHVudGVlcmluZyBpbiB0aGUgRXVyb3BlYW4gVW5pb248L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+LiA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxJdGFsaWM+dHJ1ZTwvSXRhbGljPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PkNvdW50cnkgUmVwb3J0IEdlcm1hbnk8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPnRydWU8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD4uIE5hdGlvbmFsIFJlcG9ydCAtIEdlcm1hbnkuIEF2YWlsYWJsZSBmcm9tOiBodHRwOi8vZWMuZXVyb3BhLmV1L2NpdGl6ZW5zaGlwL3BkZi9uYXRpb25hbF9yZXBvcnRfZGVfZW4ucGRmLjwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5HcmVlbnBlYWNlIGUuIFYuIDIwMTYsIDwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PEl0YWxpYz50cnVlPC9JdGFsaWM+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+SmFocmVzYmVyaWNodCAyMDE1PC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj50cnVlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+LiBBdmFpbGFibGUgZnJvbTogaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cuZ3JlZW5wZWFjZS5kZS9zaXRlcy93d3cuZ3JlZW5wZWFjZS5kZS9maWxlcy9wdWJsaWNhdGlvbnMvYjAwMzI4X2dyZWVucGVhY2VfamFocmVzYmVyaWNodF8yMDE1LnBkZiBbMjcgTWF5IDIwMTddLjwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+dHJ1ZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PkhlcnpiZXJnLCBGIDE5ODcsICdPbmUgTW9yZSBUaW1lOsKgSG93IERvIFlvdSBNb3RpdmF0ZSBFbXBsb3llZXM/Jy4gQXZhaWxhYmxlIGZyb206IGh0dHBzOi8vaGJyLm9yZy8yMDAzLzAxL29uZS1tb3JlLXRpbWUtaG93LWRvLXlvdS1tb3RpdmF0ZS1lbXBsb3llZXMgWzE1IE1heSAyMDE3XS48L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+SW5jLiAyMDE0LCA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxJdGFsaWM+dHJ1ZTwvSXRhbGljPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0Pk5vbnByb2ZpdCBPcmdhbml6YXRpb25zLCBhbmQgSHVtYW4gUmVzb3VyY2VzIE1hbmFnZW1lbnQ8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPnRydWU8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD4sIEluYy4gWzEzIE1heSAyMDE3XS48L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+SW5nZW5pZXVyZSBvaG5lIEdyZW56ZW4gZS5WLiAyMDE2LCA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxJdGFsaWM+dHJ1ZTwvSXRhbGljPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PkphaHJlc2JlcmljaHQgMjAxNTwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+dHJ1ZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0Pi4gQXZhaWxhYmxlIGZyb206IGh0dHBzOi8vd3d3LmluZ2VuaWV1cmUtb2huZS1ncmVuemVuLm9yZy9zaXRlcy9kZWZhdWx0L2ZpbGVzL2ZpbGVzL2Rvd25sb2Fkcy10aHVtYm5haWwvaW9namFocmVzYmVyaWNodDIwMTUucGRmIFszMCBNYXkgMjAxN10uPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PkpBTSBEZXV0c2NobGFuZCBlLlYuIDIwMTYsIDwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PEl0YWxpYz50cnVlPC9JdGFsaWM+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+VMOkdGlna2VpdHNiZXJpY2h0IDIwMTU8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPnRydWU8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD4uIEF2YWlsYWJsZSBmcm9tOiBodHRwczovL2phbS1kZXV0c2NobGFuZC5vcmcvd3AtY29udGVudC91cGxvYWRzLzIwMTYvMTEvSkFNX0FubnVhbF9SZXBvcnRfREVfMjAxNV9XRUIucGRmIFsyNyBKdW5lIDIwMTddLjwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5KYW1ibyBCdWtvYmEgZS5WLiAyMDE2LCA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxJdGFsaWM+dHJ1ZTwvSXRhbGljPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PkFubnVhbCBSZXBvcnQgMjAxNTwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+dHJ1ZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0Pi4gQXZhaWxhYmxlIGZyb206IGh0dHBzOi8vd3d3LmphbWJvYnVrb2JhLmNvbS93cC1jb250ZW50L3VwbG9hZHMvMjAxNi8xMC9KYW1ib19CdWtvYmFfSmFocmVzYmVyaWNodF8yMDE1LnBkZiBbMjcgSnVuZSAyMDE3XS48L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+S2VsbGVyLCBEIDIwMTUsIDwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PEl0YWxpYz50cnVlPC9JdGFsaWM+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+V2VsY2hlciBQb3N0LUhvYy1UZXN0IGlzdCBkZXIgUmljaHRpZ2U/PC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj50cnVlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+IEF2YWlsYWJsZSBmcm9tOiBodHRwOi8vd3d3LnN0YXRpc3Rpay11bmQtYmVyYXR1bmcuZGUvMjAxNS8wMS93ZWxjaGVyLXBvc3QtaG9jLXRlc3QtaXN0LWRlci1yaWNodGlnZS8gWzIzIEp1bHkgMjAxN10uPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PktoYW4gQWNhZGVteSAyMDE3LCA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxJdGFsaWM+dHJ1ZTwvSXRhbGljPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PkFuYWx5c2lzIG9mIHZhcmlhbmNlIChBTk9WQSk8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPnRydWU8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD4sIEtoYW4gQWNhZGVteSwgSW5jLiBBdmFpbGFibGUgZnJvbTogaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cua2hhbmFjYWRlbXkub3JnL21hdGgvc3RhdGlzdGljcy1wcm9iYWJpbGl0eS9hbmFseXNpcy1vZi12YXJpYW5jZS1hbm92YS1saWJyYXJ5IFsyMyBKdWx5IDIwMTddLjwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5LaW5kZXJub3RoaWxmZSBlLlYuIDIwMTcsIDwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PEl0YWxpYz50cnVlPC9JdGFsaWM+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+SmFocmVzYmVyaWNodCAyMDE2PC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj50cnVlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+LiBBdmFpbGFibGUgZnJvbTogaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cua2luZGVybm90aGlsZmUuZGUvbXVsdGltZWRpYS9LTkhfREUvTmV1ZStXZWJzZWl0ZS9JbmZvdGhlay9QdWJsaWthdGlvbmVuL0phaHJlc2JlcmljaHRlK3VuZCtNYWdhemluZS9KYWhyZXNiZXJpY2h0KzIwMTYrdW5kK0FubGFnZW4vSkIrMjAxNisoNCtNQikucGRmIFsyOSBNYXkgMjAxN10uPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0Pk1hbHRlc2VyIEludGVybmF0aW9uYWwgZS5WLiAyMDE2LCA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxJdGFsaWM+dHJ1ZTwvSXRhbGljPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0Pk1hbHRlc2VyIEludGVybmF0aW9uYWwgSmFocmVzYmVyaWNodCAyMDE1PC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj50cnVlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+LiBBdmFpbGFibGUgZnJvbTogaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cubWFsdGVzZXItaW50ZXJuYXRpb25hbC5vcmcvZmlsZWFkbWluL0ZpbGVzX3NpdGVzL21hbHRlc2VyLWludGVybmF0aW9uYWwvQS1BYm91dF91cy9FLVNlcnZpY2UvQy1QdWJsaWNhdGlvbnMvQW5udWFsX1JlcG9ydHMvQW5udWFsX1JlcG9ydF8yMDE1L01hbHRlc2VyX0ludGVybmF0aW9uYWxfSmFocmVzYmVyaWNodF9ERV8yMDE1LnBkZiBbMzEgTWF5IDIwMTddLjwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5NeWVycywgSiAyMDE2LCA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxJdGFsaWM+dHJ1ZTwvSXRhbGljPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PkZpbmxhbmQgaXMgdG9wIGZvciBzb2NpYWwgcHJvZ3Jlc3MuIEhvdyBkb2VzIHlvdXIgY291bnRyeSBjb21wYXJlPzwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+dHJ1ZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PiBBdmFpbGFibGUgZnJvbTogaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cud2Vmb3J1bS5vcmcvYWdlbmRhLzIwMTYvMTEvc29jaWFsLXByb2dyZXNzLXdlbGxiZWluZy1vcHBvcnR1bml0eS1nZHAgWzE4IEZlYnJ1YXJ5IDIwMTddLjwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5PbGVuc2tpLCBTIDIwMTUsIDwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PEl0YWxpYz50cnVlPC9JdGFsaWM+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+NyBUaXBzIFRvIEJldHRlciBFbXBsb3llZSBSZXRlbnRpb248L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPnRydWU8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD4uIEF2YWlsYWJsZSBmcm9tOiBodHRwczovL3d3dy5mb3JiZXMuY29tL3NpdGVzL3N0ZXZlb2xlbnNraS8yMDE1LzAzLzAzLzctdGlwcy10by1iZXR0ZXItZW1wbG95ZWUtcmV0ZW50aW9uLyMxMGYwYzUwMzQ1MmIgWzE0IEp1bmUgMjAxN10uPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0Pk9vc3RsYW5kZXIsIEosIEfDvG50ZXJ0LCBTVCwgdmFuIFNjaGllLCBTICZhbXA7IFdlaG5lciwgVCAyMDE0LCAnVm9sdW50ZWVyIEZ1bmN0aW9ucyBJbnZlbnRvcnkgKFZGSSk6IEtvbnN0cnVrdHZhbGlkaXTDpHQgdW5kIHBzeWNob21ldHJpc2NoZSBFaWdlbnNjaGFmdGVuIGRlciBkZXV0c2NoZW4gQWRhcHRhdGlvbicsIDwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PEl0YWxpYz50cnVlPC9JdGFsaWM+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+RGlhZ25vc3RpY2EsIDwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+dHJ1ZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PnBwLiA3M+KAkzg1LjwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5QbGFuIEludGVybmF0aW9uYWwgRGV1dHNjaGxhbmQgZS5WLiAyMDE3LCA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxJdGFsaWM+dHJ1ZTwvSXRhbGljPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PlJlY2hlbnNjaGFmdHNiZXJpY2h0IDIwMTY8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPnRydWU8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD4uIEF2YWlsYWJsZSBmcm9tOiBodHRwczovL3d3dy5wbGFuLmRlL2ZpbGVhZG1pbi93ZWJzaXRlLzA1Ll9VZWJlcl91bnMvUERGL1JlY2hlbnNjaGFmdHNiZXJpY2h0XzIwMTYucGRmIFszMCBNYXkgMjAxN10uPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PlBvcnRlciwgTUUgMTk4NSwgPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48SXRhbGljPnRydWU8L0l0YWxpYz48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5Db21wZXRpdGl2ZSBBZHZhbnRhZ2UsIDwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+dHJ1ZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PlRoZSBGcmVlIFByZXNzLCBOZXcgWW9yay48L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+Um9iZXJ0IEhhbGYgSW50ZXJuYXRpb25hbCBJbmMgMjAxNywgPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48SXRhbGljPnRydWU8L0l0YWxpYz48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5FZmZlY3RpdmUgRW1wbG95ZWUgUmV0ZW50aW9uIFN0cmF0ZWdpZXM8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPnRydWU8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD4uIEF2YWlsYWJsZSBmcm9tOiBodHRwczovL3d3dy5yb2JlcnRoYWxmLmNvbS9lbXBsb3llcnMvaGlyaW5nLWFkdmljZS9lbXBsb3llZS1yZXRlbnRpb24gWzE0IEp1bmUgMjAxN10uPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PlJvZ2VycywgQiAyMDE1LCA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxJdGFsaWM+dHJ1ZTwvSXRhbGljPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PlRoZSBTb2NpYWwgUHJvZ3Jlc3MgSW5kZXggU2Vla3MgVG8gUmVkZWZpbmUgRWNvbm9taWMgU3VjY2VzcyBNZWFzdXJlczwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD4uIDwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PEl0YWxpYz50cnVlPC9JdGFsaWM+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+QSBTZXJpZXMgb2YgRm9yYmVzIEluc2lnaHRzIFByb2ZpbGVzIG9mIFRob3VnaHQgTGVhZGVycyBDaGFuZ2luZyB0aGUgQnVzaW5lc3MgTGFuZHNjYXBlOiDCoERlbG9pdHRlIFRvdWNoZSBUb2htYXRzdSBMaW1pdGVkJ3MgKERlbG9pdHRlIEdsb2JhbCkgQ2hhaXJtYW4sIFN0ZXZlIEFsbW9uZDwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+dHJ1ZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0Pi4gQXZhaWxhYmxlIGZyb206IGh0dHA6Ly93d3cuZm9yYmVzLmNvbS9zaXRlcy9icnVjZXJvZ2Vycy8yMDE1LzA0LzI4L3RoZS1zb2NpYWwtcHJvZ3Jlc3MtaW5kZXgtc2Vla3MtdG8tcmVkZWZpbmUtZWNvbm9taWMtc3VjY2Vzcy1tZWFzdXJlcy8jZWYxMmU4YTE2NGJjIFsxNyBGZWJydWFyeSAyMDE3XS48L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+U2FsYW1vbiwgTE0gMTk5OS0sIDwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PEl0YWxpYz50cnVlPC9JdGFsaWM+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+R2xvYmFsIGNpdmlsIHNvY2lldHk8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+LiA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxJdGFsaWM+dHJ1ZTwvSXRhbGljPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PkRpbWVuc2lvbnMgb2YgdGhlIG5vbnByb2ZpdCBzZWN0b3IgLyAgTGVzdGVyIE0uIFNhbGFtb24g4oCmIFtldCBhbC5dLCA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPnRydWU8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5LdW1hcmlhbjsgTG9uZG9uIDogIEV1cm9zcGFuLCBCbG9vbWZpZWxkLCBDb25uLjwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5TYXdoaWxsLCBKICZhbXA7IFdpbGxpYW1zb24sIEQgMjAwMSwgJ01lYXN1cmluZyB3aGF0IG1hdHRlcnMgaW4gbm9ucHJvZml0cycsIDwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PEl0YWxpYz50cnVlPC9JdGFsaWM+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+TWNLaW5zZXkgUXVhcnRlcmx5PC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj50cnVlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+LiBBdmFpbGFibGUgZnJvbTogaHR0cDovL3d3dy5tY2tpbnNleS5jb20vaW5kdXN0cmllcy9zb2NpYWwtc2VjdG9yL291ci1pbnNpZ2h0cy9tZWFzdXJpbmctd2hhdC1tYXR0ZXJzLWluLW5vbnByb2ZpdHMgWzE4IE1heSAyMDE3XS48L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+U2NobWlkdC1BdHplcnQsIEwgJmFtcDsgQW1lbGFuZywgTSBvcC4gMjAxMiwgPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48SXRhbGljPnRydWU8L0l0YWxpYz48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5Qc3ljaG9sb2dpc2NoZSBEaWFnbm9zdGlrLCA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPnRydWU8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5TcHJpbmdlciwgQmVybGluLCBIZWlkZWxiZXJnLjwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5TaW1vbnNvbiwgSiwgVm9nZWwsIEMgJmFtcDsgVGVzY2gtUsO2bWVyLCBDIDIwMTYsIDwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PEl0YWxpYz50cnVlPC9JdGFsaWM+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+RnJlaXdpbGxpZ2VzIEVuZ2FnZW1lbnQgaW4gRGV1dHNjaGxhbmQ8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+LiA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxJdGFsaWM+dHJ1ZTwvSXRhbGljPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PkRlciBEZXV0c2NoZSBGcmVpd2lsbGlnZW5zdXJ2ZXkgMjAxNDwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+dHJ1ZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0Pi48L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+U29jaWFsIFByb2dyZXNzIEltcGVyYXRpdmUgMjAxNSwgPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48SXRhbGljPnRydWU8L0l0YWxpYz48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5Qcm9mZXNzb3IgTWljaGFlbCBFIFBvcnRlciBvbiB0aGUgMjAxNSBTb2NpYWwgUHJvZ3Jlc3MgSW5kZXg8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPnRydWU8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD4uIEF2YWlsYWJsZSBmcm9tOiBodHRwczovL3d3dy55b3V0dWJlLmNvbS93YXRjaD92PVVkTU51eklJb2lzLjwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5TT1MtS2luZGVyZG9yZiBlLlYuIDIwMTcsIDwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PEl0YWxpYz50cnVlPC9JdGFsaWM+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+SmFocmVzYmVyaWNodCAyMDE2PC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj50cnVlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+LiBBdmFpbGFibGUgZnJvbTogaHR0cDovL3d3dy5zb3Mta2luZGVyZG9yZi5kZS9ibG9iLzEzMzE3Mi9kN2IwZGU4NDEwZTYwNDgzMWQ5YTA3YmYyMGVhOGNmZS9qYWhyZXNiZXJpY2h0LTIwMTYtZGF0YS5wZGYgWzI5IE1heSAyMDE3XS48L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+U3RpZ2xpdHosIEogMTk5OCwgPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48SXRhbGljPnRydWU8L0l0YWxpYz48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5Nb3JlIEluc3RydW1lbnRzIGFuZCBCcm9hZGVyIEdvYWxzOiBNb3ZpbmcgVG93YXJkIHRoZSBQb3N0IC0gV2FzaGluZ3RvbiBDb25zZW5zdXM8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPnRydWU8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD4uIFRoZSAxOTk4IFdJREVSIEFubnVhbCBMZWN0dXJlIChIZWxzaW5raSwgRmlubGFuZCkuIEF2YWlsYWJsZSBmcm9tOiBodHRwczovL2luZWYudW5pLWR1ZS5kZS9Qb2xpdGlrT24vU3RpZ2xpdHoucGRmLjwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD50ZXJyZSBkZXMgaG9tbWVzIERldXRzY2hsYW5kIGUuVi4gMjAxNiwgPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48SXRhbGljPnRydWU8L0l0YWxpYz48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5KYWhyZXNiZXJpY2h0IDIwMTU8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPnRydWU8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD4uIEF2YWlsYWJsZSBmcm9tOiBodHRwczovL3d3dy50ZGguZGUvZmlsZWFkbWluL3VzZXJfdXBsb2FkL2luaGFsdGUvMTBfTWF0ZXJpYWwvSmFocmVzYmVyaWNodC90ZXJyZV9kZXNfaG9tbWVzLUphaHJlc2JlcmljaHRfMjAxNS5wZGYgWzMwIE1heSAyMDE3XS48L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+VGhlIEVjb25vbWlzdCBvbmxpbmUgMjAxMiwgPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48SXRhbGljPnRydWU8L0l0YWxpYz48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5UaGUgd2VhbHRoIG9mIG5hdGlvbnM8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+LiA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxJdGFsaWM+dHJ1ZTwvSXRhbGljPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PkFuIGFsdGVybmF0aXZlIGFwcHJvYWNoIHRvIG1lYXN1cmluZyBuYXRpb25hbCB3ZWxsLWJlaW5nLCA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPnRydWU8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5UaGUgRWNvbm9taXN0LiBBdmFpbGFibGUgZnJvbTogaHR0cDovL3d3dy5lY29ub21pc3QuY29tL2Jsb2dzL2dyYXBoaWNkZXRhaWwvMjAxMi8wNi9kYWlseS1jaGFydC0xIFsxOCBGZWJydWFyeSAyMDE3XS48L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+VHJhbnNwYXJlbmN5IEludGVybmF0aW9uYWwgRGV1dHNjaGxhbmQgZS4gVi4gMjAxNywgPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48SXRhbGljPnRydWU8L0l0YWxpYz48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5EaWUgVW50ZXJ6ZWljaG5lcjwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+dHJ1ZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0Pi4gQXZhaWxhYmxlIGZyb206IGh0dHBzOi8vd3d3LnRyYW5zcGFyZW5jeS5kZS9EaWUtVW50ZXJ6ZWljaG5lci4yMDUwLjAuaHRtbC48L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+VHJvc3QsIEEgMjAxMywgPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48SXRhbGljPnRydWU8L0l0YWxpYz48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5IdW1hbiBSZXNvdXJjZSBNYW5hZ2VtZW50PC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0Pi4gPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48SXRhbGljPnRydWU8L0l0YWxpYz48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5SZXRlbnRpb248L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPnRydWU8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD4uIEF2YWlsYWJsZSBmcm9tOiBodHRwczovL3d3dy55b3V0dWJlLmNvbS93YXRjaD92PUtWSGh1cGprVF9zIFswNCBNYXkgMjAxN10uPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PlVuaXRlZCBOYXRpb25zIDIwMDMsIDwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PEl0YWxpYz50cnVlPC9JdGFsaWM+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+SGFuZGJvb2sgb24gTm9uLVByb2ZpdCBJbnN0aXR1dGlvbnMgaW4gdGhlIFN5c3RlbSBvZiBOYXRpb25hbCBBY2NvdW50czwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+dHJ1ZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0Pi48L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+VW5pdGVkIE5hdGlvbnMgMjAxNiwgPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48SXRhbGljPnRydWU8L0l0YWxpYz48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5TdXN0YWluYWJsZSBEZXZlbG9wbWVudCBHb2FscyBSZXBvcnQgMjAxNiwgPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj50cnVlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+VU5JVEVEIE5BVElPTlMsIFtQbGFjZSBvZiBwdWJsaWNhdGlvbiBub3QgaWRlbnRpZmllZF0uPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PlZFTlJPIOKAkyBWZXJiYW5kIEVudHdpY2tsdW5nc3BvbGl0aWsgdW5kIEh1bWFuaXTDpHJlIEhpbGZlIGRldXRzY2hlciBOaWNodHJlZ2llcnVuZ3NvcmdhbmlzYXRpb25lbiBlLlYuIDIwMTYsIDwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PEl0YWxpYz50cnVlPC9JdGFsaWM+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+SmFocmVzYmVyaWNodCAyMDE1PC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj50cnVlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+LiBBdmFpbGFibGUgZnJvbTogaHR0cDovL3ZlbnJvLm9yZy91cGxvYWRzL3R4X2lncHVibGlrYXRpb25lbi9WRU5STy1KYWhyZXNiZXJpY2h0MjAxNV9ESUdJVEFMLnBkZiBbMjcgTWF5IDIwMTddLjwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5XaW5oZWxsZXIsIFMgMjAxMCwgJ05vbnByb2ZpdC1PcmdhbmlzYXRpb25lbiBpbiBEZXV0c2NobGFuZCB1bmQgaW4gZGVuIFVTQS4gQmVncmlmZmxpY2hrZWl0ZW4gdW5kIGdlc2VsbHNjaGFmdGxpY2hlIEJlZGV1dHVuZyBoZXV0ZScsIDwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PEl0YWxpYz50cnVlPC9JdGFsaWM+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+WmVpdHNjaHJpZnQgZsO8ciBTdGlmdHVuZ3MtIHVuZCBWZXJlaW5zd2VzZW48L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPnRydWU8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD4gMjAxMCwgcHAuIDgx4oCTMTIwLiBBdmFpbGFibGUgZnJvbTogaHR0cDovL3d3dy56c3R2Lm5vbW9zLmRlL2ZpbGVhZG1pbi96c3R2L2RvYy9BdWZzYXR6X1pTdFZfMTBfMDMucGRmLjwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5Xb3JsZHZpc2lvbiBEZXV0c2NobGFuZCBlLiBWLiAyMDE2LCA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxJdGFsaWM+dHJ1ZTwvSXRhbGljPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PkphaHJlc2JlcmljaHQgMjAxNTwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+dHJ1ZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0Pi4gQXZhaWxhYmxlIGZyb206IGh0dHBzOi8vd3d3LndvcmxkdmlzaW9uLmRlL3NpdGVzL2RlZmF1bHQvZmlsZXMvcGRmL1dvcmxkLVZpc2lvbi1KYWhyZXNiZXJpY2h0LTIwMTUucGRmIFszMCBNYXkgMjAxN10uPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0Pldvcm1sZXksIFIgMjAxNSwgPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48SXRhbGljPnRydWU8L0l0YWxpYz48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5Ib3cgVG8gQnVpbGQgQW4gRWZmZWN0aXZlIE9uLVRoZS1Kb2IgVHJhaW5pbmcgUHJvZ3JhbTwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+dHJ1ZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PiwgV2hlbiBJIHdvcmssIEluYy4gQXZhaWxhYmxlIGZyb206IGh0dHBzOi8vd2hlbml3b3JrLmNvbS9ibG9nL29uLXRoZS1qb2ItdHJhaW5pbmcvLjwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5Zb25nLCBBRyAmYW1wOyBQZWFyY2UsIFMgMjAxMywgPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48SXRhbGljPnRydWU8L0l0YWxpYz48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5UdXRvcmlhbHMgaW4gUXVhbnRpdGF0aXZlIE1ldGhvZHMgZm9yIFBzeWNob2xvZ3k8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPnRydWU8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD4sIFVuaXZlcnNpdHkgb2YgT3R0YXdhLiBBdmFpbGFibGUgZnJvbTogaHR0cDovL3d3dy50cW1wLm9yZy9SZWd1bGFyQXJ0aWNsZXMvdm9sMDktMi9wMDc5L3AwNzkucGRmIFsyMSBKdWx5IDIwMTddLjwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPjxGb250TmFtZSAvPjxGb250U3R5bGU+PE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5Zb3VuZywgUyAyMDA4LCA8L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxJdGFsaWM+dHJ1ZTwvSXRhbGljPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0Pk1hbnVhbCBvbiB0aGUgTWVhc3VyZW1lbnQgb2YgVm9sdW50ZWVyIFdvcmssIDwvVGV4dD48L1RleHRVbml0PjxUZXh0VW5pdD48SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+dHJ1ZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PkdlbmV2YS48L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48VGV4dFVuaXQ+PEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj48Rm9udE5hbWUgLz48Rm9udFN0eWxlPjxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+PE5hbWUgLz48L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT48Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+PFRleHQ+WmV1Y2gsIE0gMjAxNiwgPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48SXRhbGljPnRydWU8L0l0YWxpYz48TmFtZSAvPjwvRm9udFN0eWxlPjxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT48VGV4dD5IYW5kYm9vayBvZiBodW1hbiByZXNvdXJjZXMgbWFuYWdlbWVudCwgPC9UZXh0PjwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+PFRleHRVbml0PjxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+PEZvbnROYW1lIC8+PEZvbnRTdHlsZT48TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPjxOYW1lIC8+PC9Gb250U3R5bGU+PEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPjxUZXh0PlNwcmluZ2VyIEJlcmxpbiBIZWlkZWxiZXJnLCBOZXcgWW9yayBOWS48L1RleHQ+PC9UZXh0VW5pdD48L1RleHRVbml0cz48L0NpdGF0aW9uPjwvQ2l0YXRpb25zPjwvQmlibGlvZ3JhcGh5Q2l0YXRpb24+PC9CaWJsaW9ncmFwaHk+References1&1 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AppendicesAppendix A – Items of motive functions in the VFI in English and GermanTable SEQ Table * ARABIC 20: Items of motive functions in the VFI in English and German# Values Werte
1 I am concerned about those less fortunate than myself. Ich bin um Menschen besorgt, die schlechter dran sind als ich.

2 I am genuinely concerned about the particular group I am serving. Ich bin besorgt um die Menschen, für die ich die Freiwilligentätigkeit leiste.

3 I feel compassion toward people in need. Ich empfinde Mitgefühl gegebenüber bedürftigen Menschen.

4 I feel it is important to help others. Ich finde es wichtig, anderen zu helfen.

5 I can do something for a cause that is important to me. Ich kann etwas für eine Sache tun, die mir persönlich wichtig ist.

# Understanding Erfahrung
6 I can learn more about the cause for which I am working. Ich kann mehr über die Sache lernen, für die ich mich als Freiwilliger einsetze.

7 Volunteering allows me to gain a new perspective on things. Die Freiwilligenarbeit erlaubt es mir, eine neue Sichtweise auf Dinge zu gewinnen.

8 Volunteering lets me learn things through direct, hands on experience. Die Freiwilligentätigkeit ermöglicht mir, Dinge durch praktische Erfahrung zu lernen.

9 I can learn how to deal with a variety of people. Ich kann lernen, mit den verschiedensten Menschen umzugehen.

10 I can explore my own strengths. Ich kann meine Stärken kennenlernen.

# Social Soziale Anpassung gesamt
11 My friends volunteer Meine Freunde sind freiwillig tätig.

12 People I’m close to want me to volunteer. Menschen, die mir nahe sind, möchten, dass ich freiwillig tätig bin.

13 People I know share an interest in community service. Mein Bekanntenkreis teilt das Interesse an der Freiwilligentätigkeit.

14 Others with whom I am close place a high value on community service. Menschen, die mir nahe stehen, messen der Freiwilligenarbeit einen hohen Stellenwert bei.

15 Volunteering is an important activity to the people I know best. Die Freiwilligentätigkeit ist für Menschen aus meinen engsten Bekanntenkreis eine wichtige Tätigkeit.

# Enhancement Selbstwert
16 Volunteering makes me feel important. Die Freiwilligentätigkeit gibt mir das Gefühl, wichtig zu sein.

17 Volunteering increases my self-esteem. Die Freiwilligentätigkeit steigert mein Selbstwertgefühl.

18 Volunteering makes me feel needed. Die Freiwilligentätigkeit gibt mir das Gefühl, gebraucht zu werden.

19 Volunteering makes me feel better about myself. Durch meine Freiwilligentätigkeit fühle ich mich besser.

20 Volunteering is a way to make new friends. Durch meine Freiwilligentätigkeit kann ich neue Leute kennen lernen.

# Career Karriere
21 Volunteering can help me to get my foot in the door at a place where I would like to work. Die Freiwilligentätigkeit kann mir helfen, in dem Feld, in dem ich beruflich arbeiten möchte, einen Fuß in die Tür zu bekommen.

22 I can make new contacts that might help my business or career. Ich kann neue Kontakte knüpfen, die für meinen Beruf oder meine Karriere von Vorteil sein könnten.

23 Volunteering allows me to explore different career options. Durch meine Freiwilligentätigkeit kann ich verschiedene berufliche Möglichkeiten ausprobieren.

24 Volunteering will help me to succeed in my chosen profession. Die Freiwilligentätigkeit kann mir helfen, in meinem Beruf erfolgreich zu sein.

25 Volunteering experience will look good on my resume. Erfahrungen in der Freiwilligentätigkeit machen sich gut in meinem Lebenslauf.

# Protective Schutz
26 No matter how bad I’ve been feeling, volunteering helps me to forget about it. Die Freiwilligentätigkeit hilft mir, meine Sorgen zu vergessen, egal wie schlecht es mir geht.

27 By volunteering I feel less lonely. Durch der Freiwilligentätigkeit fühle ich mich weniger einsam.

28 Doing volunteer work relieves me of some of the guilt over being more fortunate than others. Die Freiwilligentätigkeit nimmt mir etwas vom “Schuldgefühl”, besser dran zu sein als andere.

29 Volunteering helps me work through my own personal problems. Die Freiwilligentätigkeit hilft mir dabei, meine eigenen Probleme zu bewältigen.

30 Volunteering is a good escape from my own troubles. Die Freiwilligentätigkeit lenkt mich von meinen Sorgen ab.

Appendix B – Request MailThe mail addressed to nonprofit organizations is written below in its original format. (Information in brackets change depending on the organization.)
Ich möchte mich engagieren! Projekt: Empirische Studie für die Personalarbeit
Sehr geehrter Anrede Name,
die Bindung von Freiwilligen und Mitarbeitenden ist in gemeinnützigen Organisationen ein wichtiges Thema. Zeigen Sie anderen Organisationen, wie gut Sie das machen, lernen Sie von anderen und/oder holen Sie sich Unterstützung. Oft fehlen die Informationen, wie zufrieden Freiwillige und Mitarbeitende sind. Warum engagieren sie sich und was kann im Personalbereich getan werden, um die Zusammenarbeit und Bindung zu stärken? Dies herauszufinden, dabei möchte ich Sie unterstützen und mich engagieren. Sind Sie interessiert?
Im Auftrag der TH Nürnberg führe ich gemeinsam mit Prof Dr. Raphael Verstege eine Studie zum Thema der Bindung von Freiwilligen in gemeinnützigen Organisationen durch und möchte damit einen wertvollen Beitrag zur Gesellschaft leisten. Weitere Informationen über mich finden Sie im beigefügten Lebenslauf.

Mein Vorhaben und Ihre Vorteile:
Kein Aufwand für Sie, kostenfrei
Ich möchte Ihre Freiwilligen und Mitarbeitenden mit einer Onlineumfrage (8 Minuten) über ihre Motivation zur Mitarbeit und Zufriedenheit in der Organisation befragen. Dabei untersuche ich das Zusammenspiel von Bindungsmaßnahmen, deren Erfolg und die Motivstrukturen von Freiwilligen und Mitarbeitenden in Ihrer Organisation.

Anonymisiert
Befragte in der Umfrage geben keine persönlichen Daten preis.

Information, Benchmarking and Learning
Sie erfahren mehr über Ihre Organisation, können sich mit anderen vergleichen und von und miteinander lernen. Selbstverständlich stelle ich alle Ergebnisse zur Verfügung.

Es würde mich sehr freuen, wenn Sie die Studie durch Ihre Teilnahme unterstützen. Für Rückfragen stehe ich selbstverständlich gerne zur Verfügung.

Mit freundlichen Grüßen
Jonas Chen
E-Mail: [email protected]
Tel: +49 173 1677 234
PS: Was wären die nächsten Schritte?
Sie lesen die Kurzeinführung (1 Min) hier:
https://www.soscisurvey.de/intro/
Sie leiten die anonymisierte Onlineumfrage (8 Min) weiter:
https://www.soscisurvey.de/meinung_de/ (Teilnahme bis 16. Juli 2017)
Ein vorgefertigtes Musteranschreiben dazu finden Sie im Anhang.

Sie erhalten die Ergebnisse bis spätestens 27. August 2017.

Appendix C – Invitation MailThe invitation mail forwarded to the workforce is written below in its original format. (Information in the brackets change depending on the organization.)
Betreff: Deine Meinung ist gefragt!
Liebe/Lieber „Name: Teilnehmer”,
die TH Nürnberg führt eine Studie durch zum Thema „Motivation und Zufriedenheit von Ehrenamtlichen und freiwilligen Mitarbeitenden”. Wir unterstützen diese Studie, weil wir auch gerne wüssten, wie zufrieden unsere Mitwirkenden sind. Daher bitten wir Dich in einer anonymisierten Umfrage zu diesem Thema Deine Meinung mitzuteilen.

Die Umfrage dauert nur 8 Minuten und wir freuen uns über eine rege Teilnahme.

Vielen Dank für Deine Bereitschaft! – und hier geht´s zur Umfrage:
https://www.soscisurvey.de/meinung_de/
Bitte Organisations-ID **** angeben
und bis 16. Juli 2017 teilnehmen.

Herzlich grüßt
Dein Vorstand
Appendix D – List of international nonprofit organizationsThe table shows the 25 international nonprofit organizations addressed in the survey.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 21: List of international nonprofit organizationsID NPO Mission # of countries Revenue in 1,000 € Emp-loyee
size Source
9001 Brot für die Welt – Evangelischer EntwicklungsdienstEvangelisches Werk für Diakonie und Entwicklung e.V. Help people in need of food, water, health, education and rights 90 254,900 539 ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 5e1935de-1f77-4cea-82ce-5319349e5a8f PFBsYWNlaG9sZGVyPg0KICA8QWRkSW5WZXJzaW9uPjUuNS4wLjE8L0FkZEluVmVyc2lvbj4NCiAgPElkPjVlMTkzNWRlLTFmNzctNGNlYS04MmNlLTUzMTkzNDllNWE4ZjwvSWQ+DQogIDxFbnRyaWVzPg0KICAgIDxFbnRyeT4NCiAgICAgIDxJZD4wOWEyNjFhOC01ZjBlLTRhZTktYWU5NC01NTYwYjI0NDYwOGY8L0lkPg0KICAgICAgPFJlZmVyZW5jZUlkPjhiMzU4NGRkLTc2MzQtNDZmZS1hNmU2LTgxNTZkZWQyYzMzYzwvUmVmZXJlbmNlSWQ+DQogICAgICA8UmFuZ2U+DQogICAgICAgIDxTdGFydD4wPC9TdGFydD4NCiAgICAgICAgPExlbmd0aD41OTwvTGVuZ3RoPg0KICAgICAgPC9SYW5nZT4NCiAgICAgIDxSZWZlcmVuY2U+DQogICAgICAgIDxSZWZlcmVuY2VUeXBlSWQ+UHJlc3NSZWxlYXNlPC9SZWZlcmVuY2VUeXBlSWQ+DQogICAgICAgIDxBdXRob3JzPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDxQZXJzb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TGFzdE5hbWU+QnJvdCBmw7xyIGRpZSBXZWx0IOKAkyBFdmFuZ2VsaXNjaGVyIEVudHdpY2tsdW5nc2RpZW5zdDwvTGFzdE5hbWU+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9QZXJzb24+DQogICAgICAgIDwvQXV0aG9ycz4NCiAgICAgICAgPEFjY2Vzc0RhdGU+MjAxNy0wNS0yOTwvQWNjZXNzRGF0ZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPERhdGU+MjAxNjwvRGF0ZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPElkPjhiMzU4NGRkLTc2MzQtNDZmZS1hNmU2LTgxNTZkZWQyYzMzYzwvSWQ+DQogICAgICAgIDxMb2NhdGlvbnM+DQogICAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9uPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPEFkZHJlc3M+aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cuYnJvdC1mdWVyLWRpZS13ZWx0LmRlL2ZpbGVhZG1pbi9tZWRpYXBvb2wvNDBfVWViZXItdW5zL0JmZFdfSmFocmVzYmVyaWNodDIwMTUucGRmPC9BZGRyZXNzPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9uVHlwZT5FbGVjdHJvbmljQWRkcmVzczwvTG9jYXRpb25UeXBlPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDwvTG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9uPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPEFkZHJlc3M+QnJvdCBmw7xyIGRpZSBXZWx0IC0gRXZhbmdlbGlzY2hlciBFbnR3aWNrbHVuZ3NkaWVuc3QgMjAxNiAtIEphaHJlc2JlcmljaHQgMjAxNS5wZGY8L0FkZHJlc3M+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb25UeXBlPkVsZWN0cm9uaWNBZGRyZXNzPC9Mb2NhdGlvblR5cGU+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9Mb2NhdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgPC9Mb2NhdGlvbnM+DQogICAgICAgIDxPbmxpbmVBZGRyZXNzPmh0dHBzOi8vd3d3LmJyb3QtZnVlci1kaWUtd2VsdC5kZS9maWxlYWRtaW4vbWVkaWFwb29sLzQwX1VlYmVyLXVucy9CZmRXX0phaHJlc2JlcmljaHQyMDE1LnBkZjwvT25saW5lQWRkcmVzcz4NCiAgICAgICAgPE9yZ2FuaXphdGlvbnM+DQogICAgICAgICAgPFBlcnNvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxMYXN0TmFtZT5Ccm90IGbDvHIgZGllIFdlbHQg4oCTIEV2YW5nZWxpc2NoZXIgRW50d2lja2x1bmdzZGllbnN0PC9MYXN0TmFtZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8L1BlcnNvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgPC9Pcmdhbml6YXRpb25zPg0KICAgICAgICA8U2VxdWVuY2VOdW1iZXI+NDc8L1NlcXVlbmNlTnVtYmVyPg0KICAgICAgICA8U2hvcnRUaXRsZT5Ccm90IGbDvHIgZGllIFdlbHQg4oCTIEV2YW5nZWxpc2NoZXIgRW50d2lja2x1bmdzZGllbnN0IDIwMTYg4oCTIEphaHJlc2JlcmljaHQgMjAxNTwvU2hvcnRUaXRsZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPFRpdGxlPkphaHJlc2JlcmljaHQgMjAxNTwvVGl0bGU+DQogICAgICA8L1JlZmVyZW5jZT4NCiAgICA8L0VudHJ5Pg0KICA8L0VudHJpZXM+DQogIDxUZXh0PihCcm90IGbDvHIgZGllIFdlbHQg4oCTIEV2YW5nZWxpc2NoZXIgRW50d2lja2x1bmdzZGllbnN0IDIwMTYpPC9UZXh0Pg0KICA8VGV4dFVuaXRzPg0KICAgIDxUZXh0VW5pdD4NCiAgICAgIDxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+DQogICAgICA8Rm9udE5hbWUgLz4NCiAgICAgIDxGb250U3R5bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+DQogICAgICAgIDxOYW1lIC8+DQogICAgICA8L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT4NCiAgICAgIDxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT4NCiAgICAgIDxUZXh0PihCcm90IGbDvHIgZGllIFdlbHQg4oCTIEV2YW5nZWxpc2NoZXIgRW50d2lja2x1bmdzZGllbnN0IDIwMTYpPC9UZXh0Pg0KICAgIDwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+DQogIDwvVGV4dFVuaXRzPg0KPC9QbGFjZWhvbGRlcj4=Brot für die Welt – Evangelischer Entwicklungsdienst (2016)
9002 DAHW – Deutsche Lepra- und Tuberkulosehilfe e.V. Fight and prevent poverty diseases 21 16,722 75 ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER eebfec23-4143-47f1-be76-e523b1720ead 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 Deutsche Lepra- und Tuberkulosehilfe e.V. (2016)
9003 Cbm – Christoffel Blindenmission Empower disabled people 63 67,800 152 9004 Ärzte ohne Grenzen e.V. Provide medical assistance in areas of crisis and war 60 125,100 307 ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER a25151fd-1eae-4e58-b8dd-474af29de7a7 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Ärzte ohne Grenzen e.V. (2016)
9005 EinDollarBrille e.V. Provide affordable eyeglasses to visually impaired people 8 1,733 15 ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 892bb169-cc53-4bcf-98e2-fc08ee6f707c 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EinDollarBrille e.V. (2017)
9006 Ingenieure ohne Grenzen e.V. Provide technical collaboration for people in need 33 1,024 14 ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 350ab917-c0c5-4b92-961a-a203131d1170 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Ingenieure ohne Grenzen e.V. (2016)
9007 Malteser International e.V. Provide emergency relief in crises such as natural disasters, epidemics, or armed conflicts 23 38,106 135 ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER c0d975aa-93e4-463b-b5d4-2809990a495b 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Malteser International e.V. (2016)
9008 terre des hommes Deutschland e.V. Works for children suffering from poverty, exploitation or violence 31
22,736 52 ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 7eb7e59e-cd35-4000-a69f-12444b9cfb02 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terre des hommes Deutschland e.V. (2016)
9009 Amnesty International Sektion der Bundesrepublik Deutschland e.V. Demand justice and fight for human rights 150 18,667 78 ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 8b033b79-ed19-4f8d-a7b4-ecca79d33de1 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 International Sektion der Bundesrepublik Deutschland e.V. (2016)
9010 Deutsches Rotes Kreuz e.V. Help vulnerable people through disasters and health emergencies 46 183,509 545 ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER b86401ed-b9b2-4a87-855e-4848b8f9afff 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Deutsches Rotes Kreuz e.V. (2017)
9011 Kindernothilfe e.V. Help and empower children 31 60,500 161 ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 6ea71e8e-aece-4099-96ad-bf7e32972a5d 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Kindernothilfe e.V. (2017)
9012 SOS-Kinderdorf e.V. Give abondened und suffering children a better future 37 281,800 3,607 ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 3608e46c-e20a-46b8-b45e-11349de18819 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SOS-Kinderdorf e.V. (2017)
9013 Deutsche Welthungerhilfe e.V. Fight against global hunger and for sustainable food security 50 214,400 196 ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 7a25506a-a54b-4069-bc50-c05a40df99b5 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Deutsche Welthungerhilfe e.V. (2016)
9014 Bischöfliches Hilfswerk MISEREOR e. V. Help people in need independent on their origin 83 191,300 333 ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 49cdf6b7-a3e4-43bf-975b-528a253a5275 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öfliches Hilfswerk MISEREOR e. V. (2016)
9015 Worldvision Deutschland e. V. Enable well being for all people, especially children 99 96,100 154 ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 454bc8b7-b332-4816-8e6c-6b88827a97fa 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Worldvision Deutschland e. V. (2016)
9016 Deutsches Komitee für UNICEF e.V. Provide humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries 150 98,830 107 ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 49b24d14-ed24-46e8-b6cc-16f73352a8b3 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Deutsches Komitee für UNICEF e.V. (2016)
9017 Plan International Deutschland e.V. Engage in perspectives and rights for children 52 159,204 195 ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER ca6ecc59-502c-40d2-8506-040aa2221721 PFBsYWNlaG9sZGVyPg0KICA8QWRkSW5WZXJzaW9uPjUuNS4wLjE8L0FkZEluVmVyc2lvbj4NCiAgPElkPmNhNmVjYzU5LTUwMmMtNDBkMi04NTA2LTA0MGFhMjIyMTcyMTwvSWQ+DQogIDxFbnRyaWVzPg0KICAgIDxFbnRyeT4NCiAgICAgIDxJZD5iOTQ3ZTQxMS0yNDhkLTQ5ODgtYWMxOS0zOWQ0YWMxZTFhYjc8L0lkPg0KICAgICAgPFJlZmVyZW5jZUlkPjhmYmMyYjlmLTczZjYtNDU4NS05ODIzLTNmNWQ2MzM2NGZhNTwvUmVmZXJlbmNlSWQ+DQogICAgICA8UmFuZ2U+DQogICAgICAgIDxTdGFydD4wPC9TdGFydD4NCiAgICAgICAgPExlbmd0aD40MjwvTGVuZ3RoPg0KICAgICAgPC9SYW5nZT4NCiAgICAgIDxSZWZlcmVuY2U+DQogICAgICAgIDxSZWZlcmVuY2VUeXBlSWQ+UHJlc3NSZWxlYXNlPC9SZWZlcmVuY2VUeXBlSWQ+DQogICAgICAgIDxBdXRob3JzPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDxQZXJzb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TGFzdE5hbWU+UGxhbiBJbnRlcm5hdGlvbmFsIERldXRzY2hsYW5kIGUuVi48L0xhc3ROYW1lPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDwvUGVyc29uPg0KICAgICAgICA8L0F1dGhvcnM+DQogICAgICAgIDxBY2Nlc3NEYXRlPjIwMTctMDUtMzA8L0FjY2Vzc0RhdGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxEYXRlPjIwMTc8L0RhdGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxJZD44ZmJjMmI5Zi03M2Y2LTQ1ODUtOTgyMy0zZjVkNjMzNjRmYTU8L0lkPg0KICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb25zPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDxMb2NhdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxBZGRyZXNzPmh0dHBzOi8vd3d3LnBsYW4uZGUvZmlsZWFkbWluL3dlYnNpdGUvMDUuX1VlYmVyX3Vucy9QREYvUmVjaGVuc2NoYWZ0c2JlcmljaHRfMjAxNi5wZGY8L0FkZHJlc3M+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb25UeXBlPkVsZWN0cm9uaWNBZGRyZXNzPC9Mb2NhdGlvblR5cGU+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9Mb2NhdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8QWRkcmVzcz5QbGFuIEludGVybmF0aW9uYWwgRGV1dHNjaGxhbmQgZS5WLiAyMDE3IC0gUmVjaGVuc2NoYWZ0c2JlcmljaHQgMjAxNi5wZGY8L0FkZHJlc3M+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb25UeXBlPkVsZWN0cm9uaWNBZGRyZXNzPC9Mb2NhdGlvblR5cGU+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9Mb2NhdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgPC9Mb2NhdGlvbnM+DQogICAgICAgIDxPbmxpbmVBZGRyZXNzPmh0dHBzOi8vd3d3LnBsYW4uZGUvZmlsZWFkbWluL3dlYnNpdGUvMDUuX1VlYmVyX3Vucy9QREYvUmVjaGVuc2NoYWZ0c2JlcmljaHRfMjAxNi5wZGY8L09ubGluZUFkZHJlc3M+DQogICAgICAgIDxPcmdhbml6YXRpb25zPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDxQZXJzb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TGFzdE5hbWU+UGxhbiBJbnRlcm5hdGlvbmFsIERldXRzY2hsYW5kIGUuVi48L0xhc3ROYW1lPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDwvUGVyc29uPg0KICAgICAgICA8L09yZ2FuaXphdGlvbnM+DQogICAgICAgIDxTZXF1ZW5jZU51bWJlcj41OTwvU2VxdWVuY2VOdW1iZXI+DQogICAgICAgIDxTaG9ydFRpdGxlPlBsYW4gSW50ZXJuYXRpb25hbCBEZXV0c2NobGFuZCBlLlYuIDIwMTcg4oCTIFJlY2hlbnNjaGFmdHNiZXJpY2h0IDIwMTY8L1Nob3J0VGl0bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxUaXRsZT5SZWNoZW5zY2hhZnRzYmVyaWNodCAyMDE2PC9UaXRsZT4NCiAgICAgIDwvUmVmZXJlbmNlPg0KICAgIDwvRW50cnk+DQogIDwvRW50cmllcz4NCiAgPFRleHQ+KFBsYW4gSW50ZXJuYXRpb25hbCBEZXV0c2NobGFuZCBlLlYuIDIwMTcpPC9UZXh0Pg0KICA8VGV4dFVuaXRzPg0KICAgIDxUZXh0VW5pdD4NCiAgICAgIDxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+DQogICAgICA8Rm9udE5hbWUgLz4NCiAgICAgIDxGb250U3R5bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+DQogICAgICAgIDxOYW1lIC8+DQogICAgICA8L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT4NCiAgICAgIDxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT4NCiAgICAgIDxUZXh0PihQbGFuIEludGVybmF0aW9uYWwgRGV1dHNjaGxhbmQgZS5WLiAyMDE3KTwvVGV4dD4NCiAgICA8L1RleHRVbml0Pg0KICA8L1RleHRVbml0cz4NCjwvUGxhY2Vob2xkZXI+Plan International Deutschland e.V. (2017)
9018 AWO International e. V. Improve quality of life of disadvantaged people 20 5,070 ? ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 0454d7f1-e963-428d-a8f0-3a9345f47a45 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AWO International e. V. (2016)
9019 Greenpeace e. V. Protect and conserve the environment and to promote peace 54 57,700 220 ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 04d50ff5-131d-4182-b1c1-251a20c1dbc9 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Greenpeace e. V. (2016)
9020 CARE Deutschland-Luxemburg e.V. Support people in need and supply care packages 36 37,571 51 ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 09b4e64d-0ae6-45d7-b29d-6d3a7270eb34 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CARE Deutschland-Luxemburg e.V. (2016)
9021 German Doctors e.V. Provide health care and train local people 5 8,814 22 ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER d972751b-ad7e-4688-8365-a0ee3425f184 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 Doctors e.V. (2017)
9022 Germanwatch e.V. Promote global justice and preserve basic needs of living worldwide Global 3,179 56 ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER c62b1a82-4c89-40a4-a700-4e2983192663 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Germanwatch e.V. (2016)
9023 JAM Deutschland e.V. Support children and families in education and agriculture in Africa 3 1,491 9 ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 062825d7-a1c9-402c-8083-3acf628dbf41 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JAM Deutschland e.V. (2016)
9024 Jambo Bukoba e.V. Improve education, health and gender equality in Tanzania 1 194 15 ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 7e7c5597-9a9a-4029-9048-c6a8b96f58ee 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Jambo Bukoba e.V. (2016)
9025 Deutsches Youth For Understanding Komitee e.V. Connect young people worldwide and promote education and intercultural understanding 50 12,380 ? ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER a39c1111-1259-4284-9148-d67e93fd6bf0 PFBsYWNlaG9sZGVyPg0KICA8QWRkSW5WZXJzaW9uPjUuNS4wLjE8L0FkZEluVmVyc2lvbj4NCiAgPElkPmEzOWMxMTExLTEyNTktNDI4NC05MTQ4LWQ2N2U5M2ZkNmJmMDwvSWQ+DQogIDxFbnRyaWVzPg0KICAgIDxFbnRyeT4NCiAgICAgIDxJZD42MzU1MTYyMi0yZDFmLTRjM2QtOGZhYi0wZGNhMjgzZWFmYjA8L0lkPg0KICAgICAgPFJlZmVyZW5jZUlkPmVlMTJmMGEyLTEwN2QtNDc5NS1hNmU0LWMxYjY2YTQ4N2E0OTwvUmVmZXJlbmNlSWQ+DQogICAgICA8UmFuZ2U+DQogICAgICAgIDxTdGFydD4wPC9TdGFydD4NCiAgICAgICAgPExlbmd0aD41MzwvTGVuZ3RoPg0KICAgICAgPC9SYW5nZT4NCiAgICAgIDxSZWZlcmVuY2U+DQogICAgICAgIDxSZWZlcmVuY2VUeXBlSWQ+UHJlc3NSZWxlYXNlPC9SZWZlcmVuY2VUeXBlSWQ+DQogICAgICAgIDxBdXRob3JzPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDxQZXJzb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TGFzdE5hbWU+RGV1dHNjaGVzIFlvdXRoIEZvciBVbmRlcnN0YW5kaW5nIEtvbWl0ZWUgZS5WLjwvTGFzdE5hbWU+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9QZXJzb24+DQogICAgICAgIDwvQXV0aG9ycz4NCiAgICAgICAgPEFjY2Vzc0RhdGU+MjAxNy0wNi0yNzwvQWNjZXNzRGF0ZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPERhdGU+MjAxNjwvRGF0ZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPElkPmVlMTJmMGEyLTEwN2QtNDc5NS1hNmU0LWMxYjY2YTQ4N2E0OTwvSWQ+DQogICAgICAgIDxMb2NhdGlvbnM+DQogICAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9uPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPEFkZHJlc3M+RGV1dHNjaGVzIFlvdXRoIEZvciBVbmRlcnN0YW5kaW5nIEtvbWl0ZWUgZS5WLiAyMDE2IC0gSmFocmVzYmVyaWNodCAyMDE0LnBkZjwvQWRkcmVzcz4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxMb2NhdGlvblR5cGU+RWxlY3Ryb25pY0FkZHJlc3M8L0xvY2F0aW9uVHlwZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8L0xvY2F0aW9uPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDxMb2NhdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxBZGRyZXNzPmh0dHBzOi8vd3d3LnlmdS5kZS9hdHRhY2htZW50LzQxMi9kb3dubG9hZC95ZnVfamFocmVzYmVyaWNodF8yMDE0LnBkZjwvQWRkcmVzcz4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxMb2NhdGlvblR5cGU+RWxlY3Ryb25pY0FkZHJlc3M8L0xvY2F0aW9uVHlwZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8L0xvY2F0aW9uPg0KICAgICAgICA8L0xvY2F0aW9ucz4NCiAgICAgICAgPE9ubGluZUFkZHJlc3M+aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cueWZ1LmRlL2F0dGFjaG1lbnQvNDEyL2Rvd25sb2FkL3lmdV9qYWhyZXNiZXJpY2h0XzIwMTQucGRmPC9PbmxpbmVBZGRyZXNzPg0KICAgICAgICA8T3JnYW5pemF0aW9ucz4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8UGVyc29uPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPExhc3ROYW1lPkRldXRzY2hlcyBZb3V0aCBGb3IgVW5kZXJzdGFuZGluZyBLb21pdGVlIGUuVi48L0xhc3ROYW1lPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDwvUGVyc29uPg0KICAgICAgICA8L09yZ2FuaXphdGlvbnM+DQogICAgICAgIDxTaG9ydFRpdGxlPkRldXRzY2hlcyBZb3V0aCBGb3IgVW5kZXJzdGFuZGluZyBLb21pdGVlIGUuVi4gMjAxNiDigJMgSmFocmVzYmVyaWNodCAyMDE0PC9TaG9ydFRpdGxlPg0KICAgICAgICA8VGl0bGU+SmFocmVzYmVyaWNodCAyMDE0PC9UaXRsZT4NCiAgICAgIDwvUmVmZXJlbmNlPg0KICAgIDwvRW50cnk+DQogIDwvRW50cmllcz4NCiAgPFRleHQ+KERldXRzY2hlcyBZb3V0aCBGb3IgVW5kZXJzdGFuZGluZyBLb21pdGVlIGUuVi4gMjAxNik8L1RleHQ+DQogIDxUZXh0VW5pdHM+DQogICAgPFRleHRVbml0Pg0KICAgICAgPEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj4NCiAgICAgIDxGb250TmFtZSAvPg0KICAgICAgPEZvbnRTdHlsZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD4NCiAgICAgICAgPE5hbWUgLz4NCiAgICAgIDwvRm9udFN0eWxlPg0KICAgICAgPEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPg0KICAgICAgPFRleHQ+KERldXRzY2hlcyBZb3V0aCBGb3IgVW5kZXJzdGFuZGluZyBLb21pdGVlIGUuVi4gMjAxNik8L1RleHQ+DQogICAgPC9UZXh0VW5pdD4NCiAgPC9UZXh0VW5pdHM+DQo8L1BsYWNlaG9sZGVyPg==Deutsches Youth For Understanding Komitee e.V. (2016)
Appendix E – Data collection statisticsThe table is extracted from the Sosci webpage and shows the statistics of data collection.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 22: Data collection statisticsPage Completed/Total/Cumulative/Clicks
5 262 262 262  
4 0 3 265  
3 0 9 274  
2 0 22 296  
Total 262 296  431
Appendix F – Data collection historyThe figure is extracted from the Sosci webpage and shows the data collection history.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 14: Data collection history
Appendix G – Item description of the volunteer surveyID item is nominal. VI items are numerical and ordinal. VV, VR and VT items are numerical with 5-scale. A short description about the items is listed below:
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 23: Item description of the volunteer surveyGroup Item ID Short English description
ID ID01_01 ID of organization
VI
Independent variables VI01_01 Generate public welfare as volunteer (check)
VI01_02 Not profit oriented as volunteer (check)
VI01_03 Freedom of choice as volunteer (check)
VI01_04 NPO activities executed in public (check)
VI02_01 Age of volunteer in years
VI03 Gender of volunteer such as male, female or others
VI04 Engagement duration of volunteer in months/years
VI05 Workload per week of volunteer in hours
VV
Motive functions VV01_01 I am concerned about those less fortunate than myself.

VV01_02 I am genuinely concerned about the particular group I am serving.

VV01_03 I feel compassion toward people in need.

VV01_04 I feel it is important to help others.

VV01_05 I can do something for a cause that is important to me.

VV01_06 I can learn more about the cause for which I am working.

VV01_07 Volunteering allows me to gain a new perspective on things.

VV01_08 Volunteering lets me learn things through direct, hands on experience.

VV01_09 I can learn how to deal with a variety of people.

VV01_10 I can explore my own strengths.

VV01_11 My friends volunteer
VV01_12 People I’m close to want me to volunteer.

VV01_13 People I know share an interest in community service.

VV01_14 Others with whom I am close place a high value on community service.

VV01_15 Volunteering is an important activity to the people I know best.

VV01_16 Volunteering makes me feel important.

VV01_17 Volunteering increases my self-esteem.

VV01_18 Volunteering makes me feel needed.

VV01_19 Volunteering makes me feel better about myself.

VV01_20 Volunteering is a way to make new friends.

VV01_21 Volunteering can help me to get my foot in the door at a place where I would like to work.

VV01_22 I can make new contacts that might help my business or career.

VV01_23 Volunteering allows me to explore different career options.

VV01_24 Volunteering will help me to succeed in my chosen profession.

VV01_25 Volunteering experience will look good on my resume.

VV01_26 No matter how bad I’ve been feeling, volunteering helps me to forget about it.

VV01_27 By volunteering I feel less lonely.

VV01_28 Doing volunteer work relieves me of some of the guilt over being more fortunate than others.

VV01_29 Volunteering helps me work through my own personal problems.

VV01_30 Volunteering is a good escape from my own troubles.

VR
Degree of retention VR01_01 Thought of leaving
VR01_03 Believe in long-term goals
VR01_04 Satisfaction in voluntary work
VT
Tools VT01_01 The organization has given a me good introduction in my voluntary work.

VT01_02 The vision and goals were explained from the very start.

VT01_03 In the beginning, I was not clear what to do in my job. (inversed)
VT01_04 Expenses incurred by volunteering are covered.

VT01_05 There is financial compensation for outstanding voluntary work.

VT01_06 Financial support for volunteers do not exist. (inversed)
VT01_07 The organization connects me with other people through social events.

VT01_08 Social events for volunteers are organized regularly.

VT01_09 The relationship between me and my colleagues are problematic. (inversed)
VT01_10 I feel appreciated as part of a people oriented organization.

VT01_11 My personal events such as birthday, marriage, birth of a new child, sickness, condolence are individually acknowledged.

VT01_12 The organization stays out of my private life. (inversed)
VT01_13 The organization is interested in my personal development and support it.

VT01_14 I can participate in training programs in the organization.

VT01_15 There is no feedback culture here. (inversed)
VT01_16 The organization rewards outstanding performance.

VT01_17 The organization honors long-term engagement.

VT01_18 There is no award for exceptional performance. (inversed)
VT01_19 I am informed about recent progress and goals in the organization.

VT01_20 I receive regularly news about activities and announcement in the organization.

VT01_21 I have the feeling to have a lack of information about the organization. (inversed)

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