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BIOL 108 WORKSHEET 4
Copy and paste the following worksheet into a new document, then answer the following questions. Submit it to Dropbox 4 by Sunday at midnight Central time. Any information copied from any source INCLUDING THE TEXT must include quotation marks and a reference. Please put your answers in bold and include the question number with your answer.
1. What is the role of the lymphatic vessels?
The lymphatic vessel,
2. What are the two categories of lymphatic organs? What organs are contained in each category?
The primary lymphatic organs and secondary lymphatic organs are recognized as the two categories of lymphatic organs (Mader,2016). Organs contained in the primary category includes: red bone marrow and thymus (Mader,2016). The spleen and lymph nodes make up the secondary category of lymphatic organs(Mader,2016).
3. Why do lymph nodes swell?
Lymph nodes are found along the lining of lymphatic vessels. Depending on their location within the body, these nodes may encounter pathogens. As a means of defense, the “lymph nodes will swell in an effort to fight infecton” (Mader,2016).
4. What are the two kinds of lymphocytes and where do they mature?
Lymphocytes are recognized as distinct white cells that fights certain infections in the body. The two types of lymphocytes, B cells and T cells originate in red bone marrow (Mader,2016). However, while the B cells remain in bone marrow to mature, the T cells travel to the thymus for maturation (Mader,2016).
5. What is the role of the spleen?
The spleen, recognized as a secondary lymphatic organ, is divided into two parts- white pulp and red pulp(Mader,2016). Once blood enters, the spleen filters out pathogens and debris in the blood before exiting this organ.
What problem might a person without a spleen have?
A person without a spleen is more at risk of having unwanted infections to attack their body(Mader,2016). .
6. Name the three categories of innate immune defenses.
Innate immune defenses are the first line of defense for fighting infections. “Three categories within this line include: physical and chemical barriers to entry, inflammatory response, and protective proteins “(Mader, 2016).
7. What role does histamine play in the inflammatory response?
Histamine is a substance produced by damaged tissues and mast cells in the body. In the inflammatory response stage of defense, its role is to dilate and make capillaries more permeable to fight infections (Mader, 2016). This action is produces welling and inflammation as a way of dealing with allergic reactions (Mader, 2016). Symptoms that occur when this process takes place includes: sneezing, itching, runny noses, and watery eyes
8. Innate Immune defenses occur immediately or very shortly after infection and adaptive immune defenses respond to antigens in the body (Mader, 2016).
9. What are macrophages and what type of cells are derived from?
Macrophages are, “large phagocytic cells derived from monocytes,(white blood cells), that identify and rid the body of certain viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites”(Mader, 2016)
10. What type of treatment have interferons been used for?
Interferons are protective protiens that work to alert the body of possible viral infections in the body (Mader, 2016). An example of how interferons are used to treat certain viral infections would be Hepatitis C.
11. What are the two types of lymphocytes that adaptive defenses rely upon? How do they work?
T cells, ( T lymphocytes) and B cells (B lymphocytes) are relied on during the adaptive immune defenses to recognize antigens that are seen as pathogens. During this process, T and B cells attach to a specific part of the pathogen in an effort to make the immune defense aware of the pathogen’s presence “(Mader, 2016).
12. What are antibody-mediated immunity and what cells are involved with it?
13. (a) What is the difference between antibodies and antigens?
An antigen is an organic substance that initiates the production of antibodies. On the other hand, antibodies uses the immune system to identify and fight foreign substances in the body (Mader, 2016).
(b) The toxin produced by the tetanus bacteria would be (antibody) or (antigen)?

14. What are two types of B cells?
Two types of B cells are recognized as plasma cells and memory B cells (Mader, 2016).
15. What are monoclonal antibodies, and what cells produce them?
16. List the three types of T cells and give the function for each.
17. How do T cells recognize an antigen?
18. What is cell-mediated immunity and which type of lymphocyte causes it?
19. What type of cell is infected by the HIV that cause AIDS? How does this cause the death of infected individuals?
20. What are some of the uses for monoclonal antibodies?
21. What are the two main classes of antibodies present in breast milk?
22. What are the two types of acquired immunity? Explain the difference.
23. Active immunity is dependent upon the presence of what two types of cells?
24. What are interleukins and what have they been used for?
25. What is an allergen?
26. What causes a delayed allergic response? Give an example?
27. How do immunosuppressive drugs prevent rejection of transplanted organs?
28. What type of immune system cells help cause multiple sclerosis and what do they do to cause the disease?
29. The use of animal organs rather than human organs is known as__________?
30. Getting vaccinated is a lifelong activity Yes or No?

Works Cited
Mader, Sylvia S., and Michael Windelspecht. Human Biology. Mc Graw Hill Education, 2016.

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