Communication is a vicious cycle which doesn’t end with the sending of message to the respondents. This cycle ends only when there is a conclusive understanding between the initiator and the respondent or the receiver and this leads to what is known as communication process.
S.K. Kapur has defined communication process as “The method by which the sender transfers information and understanding to the receiver”
Robert Kreitner defined communication process as “Chain made up of identifiable links. The chain includes the sender, encoding, message, receiver, decoding and feedback”.
C.B. Mamoria pointed out the parts of communication process by stating that; “communication process model is making up of seven steps; the communication, encoding, the message, medium/channel, reception by the receiver, decoding, action, and feedback”.
Stimulus: It is the point at which the source sees the need to communicate. He or She receives stimulus that triggers him to communicate. The stimulus for this case may include; the opinion, attitude, likes, dislikes, emotions, experience, education, and confidence. All these may influence communication and the way one communicates his/her ideas.
Encoding: It is the process of assembling the message (information, ideas and thoughts) into a representative design with the objective of ensuring that the receiver can comprehend it. It is also the method of translating information into a message which may involve the use of symbols that represent ideas or concepts into coded message that will be communicated. . The symbols here may be language, words or gestures. Feelings, opinion, experiment may be involved. These symbols are used to encode ideas into messages that others can understand.
During the time or period of encoding the message, the sender will have to decide on what he wants to transmit and basically it is always based on what the sender believes about the receiver’s knowledge and assumption along with the additional information the sender wants the receiver to know or have.
It is always advisable that if the sender decides to use the symbols, then they should be meaningful and relevant to the communication and understandable to the recipient or the receiver.
Transmission: Is the passage of message across to the receiver through a chosen medium or channel. Transmission describes communication as a linear, a one way processes in which sender intentionally transmit a message to a receiver. (Ellis and McClintock, 1990). Transmission can never be easier or simpler depending on the method of transmission one has chosen, the location or distance between the sender and the receive will always bear how easier or strenuous the process might be.
Reception: This is the point in which the receiver is able to get the message which was sent to him by the sender or the source. Reception involves two parties, the sender and the receiver. There are various forms the message can be received and they include; hearing, seeing, reading, feeling among various forms. Receivers should not be passive absorbers of the message, as soon as they get the message, they should respond to it.
Decoding: Decoding is the process by which the receiver interpret the sender’s message. The message here is converted into thoughts; he/she will analyze the message, with an aim understanding the message.
Response/Feedback: It is a very important part of communication which will show if the recipient has understood the message in the same terms as intended by the sender. Feedback is very integral part of communication as it shows us the effectiveness of our message.