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Content:
1. Introduction
2. Significance of the report
3. Discussion of Health and safety issues and safety measures
4. Protection of public around the site
5. Conclusion
6. References

1. Introduction:
The subject of health, safety and environment (HSE) is one of the major importance in the construction industry. By improving health and safety standards at the working place help enterprises become more effective to end their projects and tasks on time and increase their business reputation with customers and clients. Risk assessment is a process where we look at the workplace to identify the risks and what could go wrong in the processes and situations followed by evaluate them and determine the ways to eliminate or control them from happening.

It is important to identify the risk in a workplace to avoid putting ourselves, employees and the people around the workplace in dangers. This will help to minimize the possibility of happening the incidents related to health and safety.
In order to do risk assessment and controlling them there are several steps that can be followed:
STEP 1: check for the hazards that may happen.

STEP 2: identify who may harmed and how.

STEP 3: Assess the risks and choose if the existing precautions are sufficient.

STEP 4: write down your results.

In this report I will prepare health and safety report for construction sites for a residential building of an area 300m2 in its final stage .the site area is 75x60m the site preparation work is expected to start by the beginning of November. The site is Located in Darsait and is close to elementary school and another residential building under construction. The company is expecting around 600 labors and 15 staffs to be working in the site. It is expected that around 15 vehicles will be moving through the site each day. The project team is anticipating to handover the building by the end of 2 years.
I will prepare health and safety report for physical, chemical and ergonomics hazards.

2. Significance of this Report
By conducting risk assessment, evaluate and propose corrections to the identified risks, we will gain the following benefits :
Maximum Productivity of the workers: because this will reduce the time that may cause the defective machines or tools, also wrong working procedures to complete the tasks. Because this may cause waste of time when they try to fix the machines or re do things when the follow wrong procedures.

Saving Money : less injuries means less money to spend for penalties, medication of the labor inanition to compensation for the injuries

Good reputation of the company: when we have a good procedures of health and safety our company will gain support from the other business
Satisfied Employees – the more happier the employees they will get more motivated if they were no injuries and the will feel that the management is taking care of them and it will be less molar
Follow legal requirements Ministry of Labor Affairs and Municipality; this will avoid penalties and stopping of work.

3. Discussion of Health and Safety Issues and Safety Measures
In order to do risk assessment and controlling them there are several steps that can be followed:
STEP 1: check for the hazards that may happen
STEP 2: identify who may harmed and how
STEP 3: Assess the risks and choose if the existing precautions are sufficient
STEP 4: write down your results.

There are several types of hazards in workplace like:
1- Physical hazards:
A) Risks of moving vehicles: the risks of moving vehicles can be in number of forms:
People can be hit by a moving vehicle
Being confined between a vehicle and a wall.

Vehicles can crashing with each other or the building
B) Falling object
When an object falls from a high surface in the air, it is very dangerous regardless its weight. Since crashed objects are related to serious danger, many safeguards are necessary to protect people walking on the basis of the project. Risks of falling objects can be from the nearby building under construction or from the building of this project under study.

C) Noise:
Noise means unwanted sounds or unpleasant sounds.

Noises can affect hearing which could be temporary or permanent. Usually the person who exposed by loud noises can often feel temporary deafness. While hearing could recover within a period of time, this must not be ignored since it is a sign which permanent or sustained exposure to these noises could cause permanent damage.

Physical Risks
Risks Who may affected Risk assessment Precaution
People can be hit by a moving vehicle Workers and staff at the site
Students crossing the road near the site High – using Flags to guide pedestrians and other vehicles.

– workers have to wear reflective vests
– reverse devices of the vehicles has to be checked
Falling objects from the vehicles Workers and staff
Pedi strainers Low To insure the objects are well fasten
Crashing the vehicles each other Vehicles inside the site
Public vehicles Medium -Propose speed limit
– to propose on way route of the vehicles

Lighting in at the site
Falling object Workers and staff
Pedi strainers Medium Installing safety nets around the building
Workers have to wear helmets
Noises Workers Low Workers exposed to this risks has to wear providing hearing protection;
Where possible control noise by change the machine type.

2- Ergonomic Hazards:
Sprain and strain on the back are the most common mutilations of builders. Workers, carpenters, electricians, roofers and plumbers are the most people who can have such injuries. Many of them come from excessive and physical exercise. Sources of injury include containers, timber / timber and tools. Working below the knees, working above shoulder height, doing repetitive work, and carrying heavy stuff are common risk factors for ergonomic injury.

Ergonomics is the science and art that gives work to workers. Training, field assessments and annual lectures at construction sites help to improve overall ergonomics and reduce the possibility of injuries at construction sites. Frequently asked questions include:
Plan and organize the work to set the deposition area so that the shortest distance and frequency of handling, handling or handling of the material is achieved.

To prevent slipping and falling, workers have to keep the access path and the sidewalk level and make it less slippery.

Workers can job so it can be done above and below their knees and below the shoulders. (i.e at the level of the work desk or saw horse)
workers can also work at a sitting position to prevent standing, knocking over, kneeling and bending over time
Break between workers who work in different workplaces due to repetitive or long-term work, and cancel trade.

Recommendations for material handling equipment (forklift, crane, hoist, pallet jack, cart etc) for moving heavy materials and containers.

Selection and maintenance of power tools and non-power tools to mitigate unnatural posture, intense intense exercise, contact stress, and vibration.

Ergonomic Hazards
Risks Who may affected Risk assessment Precautions
Sprain and strain on the back due to handling heavy objects Workers
High Provision material handling equipment (forklift and crane)
Sprain and strain on the back due to bending during the work Workers and staff Low workers can also work at a sitting position to prevent standing, knocking over, kneeling and bending over time
Slipping and tripping Visitors and workers Medium Workers have to keep the access path and the sidewalk level and make it less slippery.

Wearing safety boots
3- Chemical Hazards:
The hazards of the Chemical may be in the following forms :Dusts from the building, fumes from the vehicles or paints and chemicals, asbestos fibers from insulation.

Liquids such as paints and solvents
Gases
These Chemicals can be used at construction sites. Workers may also be exposed to chemicals generated during construction activity for example: Asbestos, welding fumes , solvents and others
Asbestos exposures can cause breathing problems, lung cancer and the cancer of the lung lining many years after exposures
Welding fume contains various chemical substances depending on what is welded, chemical composition of welding rod, flux and shielding gas. Generally, welding or welding in a confinement space of stainless steel to produce hexagonal chrome is the most dangerous welding activity.

Solvent Various solvents with varying degrees of toxicity are used for construction. They are paints and glue. Epoxy and other products. Generally, the possibility of exposure to an excess of solvent is treated in enclosed spaces.

Solvents can:
Irritate your eyes, nose or throat,
Make you dizzy, high , sleepy, give you a headache or causes you to pass out,
Affect your judgment or condition,
Cause internal damage to your body,
Dry out or irritate your skin.

Chemical can enter the body through:
Inhalation: Breathing well, inhalation is generally the most common way chemicals enter the body
Ingestion: Accidental swallowing due to meals, alcohol consumption and smoking
Absorption: It is absorbed by contact with skin and eyes
There are two levels of chemical hazards effect on health. One of which is Acute this is due to sudden short time explosive appear almost immediately that includes headaches, collapse or even death if the chemical was of specific substances such as high levels of carbon monoxide.

Chemical Hazards
Risks Who may affected Risk assessment Precaution
Dusts/ asbestos Pedestrians , student and workers High Workers exposed to this risks has to wear masks
Liquids Workers Low Workers expose to this risk has to wear safety goggle to protect their eyes and providing eye wash near to the workplace and wearing long sleeves cloths and gloves
Fumes and gasses Workers Medium Workers walking in this environment has to ensure a good ventilation and he has to wear a proper masks

4. Protection of public around the site
Un allowed people at worksite
The most efficient way to allow people to safely pass through the construction site is to keep them physically harmless. Setting a boundary using a fence to protect them from danger. Warning posters can be used to aware people from entering the construction site. These can keep pedestrians as far as possible from work activities and can prevent people who are interested in projects from entering the space after working hours.

Falling object
When an object falls from a high surface in the air, it is very dangerous regardless its weight. Since crashed objects are related to serious danger, many safeguards are necessary to protect people walking on the basis of the project. Workers are fully equipped with a proper personal protection equipment’s, while others are not.

The most known ways to protect people from falling objects include walkway warehouses, nets and shoots. The sidewalk warehouse is a durable structure built around the sidewalk. Netting is used at a higher level to catch things that may fall off Shoots are used when waste is required to move from high rise to the ground. They can throw the materials without worrying about the labor being attacked by anyone.

Vehicles
At construction sites that create rare traffic patterns, people can get confused and fall into the road of traffic. In order to prevent accidents, you can post signs indicating Pedestrians and other heavy vehicles. Barricades can also be placed in places where you need to avoid areas with heavy traffic. If you are congested, we recommend using Flags to guide pedestrians and other vehicles.

Unsafe materials
Often the construction site is filled with harmful substances such as sharps, PPE (cement etc.) and building materials that require the use of heavy objects. Putting barriers around the site, people have to be away from most of these dangers but we need to make sure that these things are not stored in an open place. If dangerous substances are thrown away at the end of the day, please make sure they are in the trash can and that dust stars are closed.

Tripping, slipping and falling hazards
Your site has clear barriers and the danger of pedestrians’ slips, trips and falls is kept to a minimum as long as precautions are taken to prevent falling objects from reaching the aisles. However, changes in normal pathways may cause people to trip or drop people, especially when the walking surface is non-uniform. In some places the contractor needs to construct a special temporary sidewalk for pedestrians so when these roads are constructed the workers need to make sure they are even .Noise
Noise levels around the construction site are annoying and dangerous for those living nearby or it may distract the school . A certain degree of noise is inevitable during the construction work, but if work occurs or noise of work is large, please follow local noise regulations.

In some cases it is also possible to select less powerful tools or other machines. This is safe for workers.

Dust
Finally, dust is a common danger near the construction site. You can keep your workers safe by wearing respirators, but when the site is dusted, they can not always install a respirator on a pedestrian.

Water is generally used at the construction site to minimize dust, so if problems occur locally please set up a system to blow away the dusty parts of the site.

5. Conclusion
The subject of health, safety and environment (HSE) is one of the major importances in the construction industry. By improving health and safety standards at the working place help enterprises become more effective to end their projects and tasks on time and increase their business reputation with customers and clients.

In this report,
risks at construction site have been made.

The assessment of the risks has been made in steps which can be briefed by 4 steps. STEP 1: check for the hazards that may happen, STEP 2: identify who may harmed and how. STEP 3: Assess the risks and choose if the existing precautions are sufficient. STEP 4: write down your results.

Risks which have been assessed are related to chemical, physical and ergonomics
People who may affected by these risks, the levels to occur has been identified, followed by proposing the proper precautions to eliminate them.

The most high hazards in:
physical: People can be hit by a moving vehicle
Ergonomics: Sprain and strain on the back due to handling heavy objects
Chemical: Dusts/ asbestos

6.References1i-sight,(2017), Benefits Of Workplace Risk Assessment. Available at https://i-sight.com/resources/benefits-of-workplace-risk-assessments/ Accessed on 9 Dec 2017
2 HEALTH AND SAFETY AUTHORITY,(2017) Healthy, Safe and productive lives. Available at http://www.hsa.ie/eng/Topics/Physical_Agents/. Accessed on 15 Dec 2017
3Creative Saffety publishing, (nd),Construction Sites Pose Hazards To The Public, Not Just Workers. Available at http://www.creativesafetypublishing.com/construction-sites-pose-hazards-to-the-public-not-just-workers/Accessed On 15 Dec 2017
4 ETC, (2008) Ergonomics in construction Industry. Available at http://www.ergoworld.com/ergonomics-industry-construction.htm Accessed On 15 Dec 2017
5 Work Safe, (2017), Vehicle movements. Available at HYPERLINK “https://worksafe.govt.nz/topic-and-industry/vehicle-movements/” https://worksafe.govt.nz/topic-and-industry/vehicle-movements/ Accessed On 19 Dec 2017
6 WHAT ARE THE FIVE STEPS TO RISK ASSESSMENT, (2017). Available at https://worksmart.org.uk/health-advice/health-and-safety/hazards-and-risks/what-are-five-steps-risk-assessment Accessed on 9 Dec 2017

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