Drawn-on-film animation or as we called the direct animation, is an animation technique that similar to a cel-animation technique. There are two methods to produce this animation technique. First, it begins with the use of a blank film stock, which the animator can draw or paint on it. Then the second method is using a black film(that had already been developed), where they can scrape it apart from drawing on it. After that, the artist may add or use some other helpful tool, and at the end, they can consolidate it endlessly. They’re two of the pioneer that had already used this animation technique. Which were Len Lye and Norman McLaren. They two had been produced multiple animated films by using this animation technique.