EXAMINING THE EFFECTS OF JOB TRAINING ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE IN MOBILE TELEPHONE INDUSTRY

EXAMINING THE EFFECTS OF JOB TRAINING ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE
IN MOBILE TELEPHONE INDUSTRY.
A CASE OF TELKOM ORANGE NAKURU, KENYA.

ATOLA JANEPHER ADONGO
REG: NO.D53/NKU/PT/24226/2011

A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS IN
PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF DEGREE
OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (HUMAN RESOURCE
MANAGEMENT), KENYATTA UNIVERSITY.

SEPTEMBER 2013

DECLARATION
This research is my original work and has not been presented before for an award of a degree in
any other institution for higher learning.
Signed……………………………………… Date…………………………………………
ATOLA JANEPHER ADONGO

This research project has been submitted for examination with my approval as the university
supervisor.
Signed……………………………………… Date………………………………………….
Dr. ABEL ANYIENI

This research project has been submitted for examination with my approval as the university
chairman.
Signed…………………………………… Date………………………………………….
CHAIRMAN
DR.STEPHEN MUATHE
DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
KENYATTA UNIVERSITY

DEDICATION
To my parents, Mr Wycliffee Atola and Mrs Beatrice Atola who are the driving force in my
academic pursuits.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
To begin with, I wish to register my immeasurable thanks to the Almighty God who is the source
of wisdom and encouragement, for seeing me through the time of admission to this time. I am
grateful to my parents for the financial support and contribution made towards my expenses in
pursuit of this program, without which I would not be able to get to this stage. I would also like
to express my indebtedness to my supervisors, Dr. Abel Anyieni, who provided limitless
guidance to me prior to and during the entire duration. I wish to acknowledge my course mates,
whom we discussed together to arrive at a comprehensive conclusion. God bless you all.

ABSTRACT
Employee is a blood stream of any business. The accomplishment or disaster of the firm depends
on its employee performance. Hence, top management should realize the importance of investing
in training for the sake of improving employee performance. This study was set to examine the
effects of job training on employee performance in Mobile Telephone Industry Nakuru, Kenya as
a case. Those included in the study were the top level management, middle level employees and
the junior employees of Telkom Orange who were randomly selected. Employee training has
been viewed as a tool for better productivity, general workforce skill development and
motivation. The objective of the study was to examine the aspect of job training on employee
performance in Telkom Orange. To establish whether technological change affect the
performance of employees in Telkom. It also determined whether Telkom train their employees
to enhance their performance. Lastly it investigated how effective employee training was for any
organization. The target population was 419 comprising of 44 top level management, 165 middle
level employees and 210 junior employees from all the entire department of Mass market and
Customer care, Information Technology, finance and account and human resource in Telkom
Orange Nakuru County, Kenya. To ensure all categories of employees were represented in the
sampling process, stratified random sampling technique was used to sample the survey
respondents from the target population. The employees were categorised into three strata of top
level management, middle level employees and the junior employees.Training improved
productivity and job satisfaction for organizations because employees knew what is expected of
them as they were also equipped with the information and tools to perform their jobs effectively
It appeared to be a gap, concerning the study on the impact of training on employee performance.
Therefore, the study was intended to investigate training programs of Telkom Orange and the
impact it had on employee performance in mobile telephone industry. Data was collected from
all employees using self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive Survey method was used to
gather data. This was done to find out the opinions, preferences, attitudes, concerns of a cross-
section of the population about the impact of job training on employee performance. Interviews
were also conducted on managers from whom the researcher gathered more perspectives. Data
from the questionnaires were analyzed quantitatively using descriptive statistics like frequency
counts provided by SPSS. Data was processed by editing, coding, entering and then presenting in
comprehensive tables which showed the responses of each category of variables. All the
responses were recorded and incorporated in Chapter four and five. Finally, the study discussed
and identified the limitations of the previous studies and gave directions for future research on
this topic.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
APPROVAL AND DECLARATION…………………………………………………..ii
DEDICATION …………………………………………………………………………..iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT……………………………………………………………….iv
ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………….……v
LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………………….ix
LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………….…………….…. x
DEFINATION OF OPERATONALTERMS……………………………………….….xi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.0 Background of the study……………………………………………………..…….1
1.1 Statement of the problem……………………………………………….…….…….5
1.2 Objective of the study………………………………………………………..……..6
1.3 Research Questions……………………………………………………………..……6
1.4 Significance of the study…………………………………..……………….………..7
1.5 Scope of the study………………………………………………….….…..….…….7
1.6 Limitation of the study……………………………………………….….…………..8
1.7 Assumptions of the study…………………………………………………………….8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction………………………………………………………………….…..….9
2.1 Theoretical Review……………………………………………………….…………..9
2.2 Related Literature……………………………………..………………………………11
2.2.1 Training ……………………………………………………………………………11
2.2.2 Human Resource Management…………………………………….……………….12
2.2.3 Job Training and Employee Performance ………………..……………………….13
2.2.4 Importance of Training ……………………………………………………………..15
2.2.5 Methods of Training…………………………………..……………….………….15

2.2.6 External Factors…………………………………………………………………18
2.2.7 Training Evaluation………………………………………………………….….18
2.3 Conceptual Framework……………………………………………..……………..20-21

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction……………………………………………..………………….…….……22
3.1Research Design………………………………..……………………………………………. 22
3.2 Target population………..……………………..……………………………..………..22
3.3Sample and Sampling Procedure………………..…………………..……………………22
3.4 Location………………………………………………………………………………24
3.5 Research Instruments..…………………..…………………………….………….…..24
3.6Piloting…………………………………………………………………………………..25
3.6.1 Validity …………………..………………………………………………………. .25
3.6.2 Reliability…………………..…………………………………………………….. ..25
3.7. Ethical Consideration……………………………………………………………. ….25
3.8 Data Collection Procedure…………………………………………………………….25
3.9 Data Analysis and Presentation………………………………………………………..26
3.10 Expected Outcome…………………………………………………………………..26
CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
4.1 Introduction of Data Analysis………………………………………………..………27
4.2 Preliminary Information……………………………………………………………..27
4.2.1 Response Rate……………………………………………………………………..27
4.3 Demographic Information……………………………………………………………28
4.4 Training and Employee Performance………………………………………………..30
4.5 Performance Improvement…………………………………………………………..36
4.6 Effects of Training on Employee Performance………………………………………40

4.7 Participation in Training………………………………………………………….….42
4.8 How Training is Evaluated………………………………………………………….42
4.9 Correlation Test……………………………………………………………………..43
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………….45
5.2 Summary Findings…………………………………………………………………..45
5.3 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………..47
5.4 Recommendation……………………………………………………………………49
5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies…………………………………………………….50
Reference…………………………………………………………………………..……..51
APPENDICE
Budget………………………………………………………………………….…….….55
Research Plan……………………………………………………………………………..56
Letter of Introduction……………………………………………………………………57
Questionnaire for Employees of Telecom Orange Nakuru, Kenya……………………….58
Interview Schedule for Management of Telecom Orange Nakuru, Kenya……………….61

LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1 Sampling Frame………………………………………………………..………24
Table 4.1 Age distribution of respondents……………………………………………….28
Table 4.2 Gender of Respondents……………………………………………………….28
Table 4.3 Education Background………………………………………………………..29
Table 4.4 Position Held by Respondents………………………………………………..30
Table 4.5 Year of Service in the Organization…………………………………………..31
Table 4.6 Number of Times Respondents get Involved in Training…………………….32
Table 4.7 Objective of training…………………………………………………………..34
Table 4.8 How adequate is training conducted in the Company………………………..36
Table 4.9 How Training Need is Determined…………………………………………..38
Table 4.10 Rating the Organization in Relation to training…………………………….39
Table 4.11 Motivation through Training………………………………………………..40
Table 4.12 Correlation between Job Training and Employee Performance……………43

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1 Conceptual Model…………………………………….………………………21
Figure 4.1 Gender of Respondents………………………………………………………29
Figure 4.2 Education Background……………………………………………………….30
Figure 4.3 Position Held by Respondents……………………………………………….31
Figure 4.4 Whether Telkom Formulate Employee training Policy……………………….33
Figure 4.5 Methods Used for Training……………………………………………….….35
Figure 4.6 Whether Training is planned or systematic……………………………………36
Figure 4.7 Budget for Employees Training………………………………………………37
Figure 4.7 Sponsorship for Further Studies………………………………………………38
Figure 4.8 Rating the Organization in relation to Training………………………………40
Figure 4.9 Employee Potential for Development through Training………………………41
Figure 4.10 Opinion of training leads to employee performance……………………….41

DEFINITION OF OPERATIONAL TERMS
1. Training Organized activity aimed at imparting
information and/or instructions to improve the
recipient’s performance or to help him or her
attain a required level of knowledge or skill.
2. Performance The accomplishment of a given task measured
against preset known standards of accuracy,
completeness, cost, and speed.
3. Productivity A measure of the efficiency of a person,
machine, factory, system, etc., in converting inputs
into useful outputs..
4. Policy A plan or course of action, as of a government,
political party, or business, intended to influence
and determine decisions, actions, and other matters.
5. Mass Market This is a market coverage strategy in which a
Firm decides to ignore market segment differences
and appeal the whole market with one offer or one
strategy. The idea is to broadcast a message that
will reach the largest number of people possible.
6. Information Technology The application of computers and
telecommunications equipment to store retrieves,
transmit and manipulate data, often in the context of
a business or other enterprise.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.0 Background Information
Training and Development
Over the past one and half decades, various arguments have been made that firm’s human
resource are sole source of sustainable competitive advantage, Certo (2006). Employee Training
Program increase performance of both organization and individuals (Becker 1962). In the course
of organization business, there are always needs for the employees and management to acquire
latest skills. Training programs is an example of such strategy that enables the organizations to
acquire competitive advantage. When employees acquire new information and knowledge, they
become more efficient and productive. Employees must be given the attention they deserve
because they are a prime asset to the organizations and a bridge towards the attainment of the
sought after returns on investment (Charney & Conway 1997). Therefore, it is incumbent on
organizations to prioritize the employee training so that they can realize the benefits in the short
or long term. However this can be largely achieved if the managers and employees perceive
training to have a positive effect on the firm performance. The organization performance will be
high if the training done is perceived by the managers and employees of that organization to be
important and relevant to assist them in adding skills and knowledge in performing their tasks.

Training and development to impact knowledge and skills of employees proved to be a major
source of competitive advantage in a global market McKinsey (2006). To develop the desired
knowledge, skills and abilities of the employees, so as to perform well on the job, requires
effective training and development programs that may also effect employee motivation and

commitment Meyer and Allen (1991). In order to prepare their workers to do their job as desired,
organizations provides training so as to optimize their employee’s potential. Most of the firms,
by applying training programs, and building new skills in their workforce, enable them to cope
with the uncertain conditions that they may face in future, thus, improving the employee
performance.
Employee Performance.
Employees need training not only in the technological aspects but also in human relations,
problem solving and the basic concepts of management (Hayward, 1990). When employees
acquire new knowledge and information, they become more efficient, productive and fully
developed. The importance of training has accelerated in the last few decades as a mission of
most organization to achieve maximum return on investment, Certo and Certo (2006). Training
should be viewed therefore as an important part of the process of total quality management.
Understanding of the importance of training recently has been heavily influenced by the
intensification of competition and the relative success of organizations where investment in
employee development is considerably emphasized.
The companies aimed at gaining the competitive advantage realized the importance of training in
improving the employee’s performance. Becker (1993) indicates the evidence regarding the
positive effect of training programs on both employee and organizational performance. Colarelli
& Montei (1996) also indicates that effective training programs leads to superior return on
investment. Due to fast pace global and technological development, firms are now facing new
changes as well as challenges. Technological advancements have molded the need of capabilities
and competencies required to perform a particular tasks. Thus, to cope with these challenges,
more improved and effective training programs are required by all organizations. Effective

training programs helps in constructing a more conducive learning environment for the
workforce and train them to cope with the upcoming challenges more easily and in time
(Gummesson, 2006).
Amongst the important function of human resource management, one of the crucial functions is
employee development through proper training and development programs. Employee
development refers to the capacity and capability building on an employee, and thus as of whole
organization, to meet the standard performance level (Elena P. 2000). More the developed
employees, more they are satisfied with their job, hence increasing the firm productivity and
profitability.
Mobile Telephone Industry
The mobile telephone industry in Kenya is well developed having four major players. It has
experienced strong growth in the year 2012 due to training programs and the same is likely to
continue over till 2017.Mobile Telephone industry has emerged as a steadily growing contributor
to the Kenyan economy. This has been largely due to the major advancements in infrastructure,
favorable government policy, as well as an active and innovative private sector. Mobile
telephone industry represents a growth process through training which encompasses all aspects
of the organization’s and employee performance, Research and Markets: Telecom Industry in
Kenya ( 2013)
Telephone industry is ever-changing and encompasses planned training to make the organization
more efficient at any given point of its life-cycle. Conversely, training is a strategy for brining
organizational development to life. Training is one subset of many that telephone industry relies
upon when implementing employee performance.

A good training system ensure employees in every organization understand what business the
company is in, what condition the company is undergoing and keeps updated on the skills they
need to posses to perform their day to day job so as to bring in confidence and to improve
performance. The training of employees contributes directly to the development of human
resources within the organization. Training programs are directed towards maintaining and
improving current job performance, while development program seek to develop skills for future
jobs, Stoner ; Freeman (1992).
Telkom Orange Kenya.
Telkom Orange Kenya employs a number of methods in meeting the training objectives of the
organization. Such methods include on-the –job training; this means that training takes place in a
normal working situation, using the actual tools, equipments, documents or materials that
trainees will use when fully trained. The company also employs internship method, where
programmers are jointly sponsored by colleges, universities that offer students the opportunity to
gain life experiences, while allowing them to find out how they will perform in this company.
(Training Policy document for Telkom Orange Kenya.)
The use of training is essential for employees to understand and aid in carrying out the goals of
the organization. Organizations must employ skilled workers who are both proactive and reactive
to a changing environment. They must identify the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to
obtain their goals and instill them into their employees (Hoton, 2002). In doing so, Telkom
Orange ensure that the competencies identified for individual employees match the goals and
objectives of the organization. Investment in continuous training and development of
competencies in their employees will helps them to better meet their goals and objectives.

Telkom employs training programs to focus on managing change within the work environment
and to improve employee performance. It also develops new performance management system
that better communicates the overall objectives of the organization. Employees are trained to
efficiently use the new performance management system, and therefore aid in the overall
objectives of their organization. Essentially, implementation of training assists the management
in general management of the employees.

1.1 Statement of the problem
This study begins from the realization of the need to effectively administer the impact of job
training and development on employee performance. It is a well known fact that training
enhances skills, knowledge and ultimately worker performance and productivity in organizations
Cole (2002). Many organizations in Kenya and indeed the private sector engage in training of
staff and have departments, units and sectors in charge of training. Telkom Orange is one such
organization that has been practicing training. However, for some years now it appears training
in Telkom Orange is haphazard and several of the employees have not qualified for any form of
training nor is there any systematic process of staff development in place. Training Policy
document for Telkom Orange Kenya (2012). Overall, training impacts organizational
competitiveness, revenue and performance. Majority of governmental, private organization and
international organizations are not recognizing the importance of training to increase their
employee’s productivity and when the economy slows, many organizations first seek cuts in their
training budgets. This has lead to high job turnover and has increased the cost to hire new
employees and finally lowed down the organizational profitability, Evans and Lindsay (1999).

In the past few years it has been reported that there has been severe failure of organizations in
Kenya and particularly on employee performance, Kenya Bureau National Statistics
(2012).There was a difference between what the researchers said and what Telkom orange did. It
appeared to be a gap, concerning the study on the effects of training on employee performance.
Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of training on employee performance
in mobile communication industry in Kenya so as to inform the managers, academicians and
policy makers on the effect of training on employee performance particularly Telkom Orange,
Nakuru.
Objectives of the study
a) General Objective
To examine the impact of job training on employee performance in mobile telephone
industry
b) Specific Objectives
1. To examine the aspect of job training on employee performance in Telkom Orange.
2. To determine how technological change affect the performance of employees in Telkom
Orange.
3. To establish if Telkom Orange train their employees to enhance their performance.
4. To investigate how effective the employee training and development is for any
organization
1.2 Research Questions
1. What relationship does job training have with employee performance in Telkom Orange?
2. How will technological change affect the daily activities and performance of employees
in Telkom Orange?

3. How does Telkom Orange train their personnel by themselves or hire already trained
employees?
4. What effects do the employee training and development has for the organization?
1.3 Significance of the study
The study will benefit the management of Telkom Orange Nakuru by helping them formulate
their policy in order to develop programs that will positively affect employee performance. The
management will also be able to plan and design how to employ well trained employees to be
able to achieve their goals and meet their objectives. It will also help the organization to identify
their training need, the best training method and how to evaluate their employees and the training
system at large. The need for the improvement in the employees’ skill is emphasized by different
business executives among the private companies therefore this study findings will be a
reference for many business executives and policy makers.

The study will also enable the Government to come up with training policies for parastetals and
institutions that will enable organizations to take their employees for training or invite the
trainers to train employees in their organizations. The study will also prompt more researches
and academicians in the area having contributed to literature related to job training and
development programs and serves as a reference for private and public organizations interested
in the dynamics of employee performance.
1.5 Scope of the study
Those who were included in the study were the top level management, middle level employees
and the junior employees from the department of Mass Market and Customer Care, Information
technology, finance and accounts and human resource of Telkom Orange Nakuru, Kenya.

1.6 Limitation
Financial constrains was a major limitation owing to the nature of the research. The researcher
was required to use her savings in order to complete the study. Time factor was also a major
limitation as the researcher had to explain to every respondent what was required in the
questionnaire. Another limitation was that respondents were not willing to give information in
the name of confidentiality. To counter this problem an introductory letter was sent before hand
and a follow up study was made. The researcher had to emphasize that the information obtained
from the questionnaires and interviews would be treated with strict confidentiality and for the
purpose of the research study

1.8 Assumptions of the Study.
The study assumed that the respondents will cooperate and will provide honest and sincere view
during the data collection period. The study also assumed that the company’s management will
cooperate and give the required information and data.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction
In this Chapter, the researcher critically analyzed works of other people related to variables
under study. The theoretical review constitutes the theory underlying the impact of job training
on employee performance. Additionally, it presents the conceptual framework and related
literature.
2.1. Theoretical Review
The Human Capital Theory developed by Smith (1776) and re-invigorated by Schultz (1961)
postulates that training and education are a form of investment in human beings. The underlying
belief then is that training creates assets in the form of knowledge and skills, which in turn
increases the productivity of the worker. Schultz argued that skilled human resource has been
able to acquire these skills as a result of training and development programs or investment in the
existing human resource through appropriate on-the job training both within and outside the
organization for example seminars, workshops, conferences, and by creating conducive
environment through appropriate welfare care like promotion.
According to Flamholtz & Lacey (1981), human capital theory proposes that people’s skills,
experience, and knowledge are a form of capital and that returns are earned from investments
made by the employer or employee to develop these attributes. The Human capital theory holds
that employees should invest in specific training and further initiation of more promotion
opportunities to enhance employees’ career path prospects. Thus, the human capital perspective
at the level of the organizations, due to its emphasis on skills and performance, appears to offer

more support for generalized investments in the human resources. Burke and Day’s (1986) meta-
analysis theory of managerial training effects (across six training content areas, seven training
methods, and four types of training outcomes) showed that managerial training is moderately
effective. He contends that the purpose of training and management development programs is to
improve employee capabilities and organizational capabilities. When the organization invests in
improving the knowledge and skills of its employees, the investment is returned in the form of
more productive and effective employees. Training and development programs may be focused
on individual performance or team performance. The creation and implementation of training
and management development programs should be based on training and management
development needs identified by a training needs analysis so that the time and money invested in
training and management development is linked to the mission or core business of the
organization. Tournament Theory propounded by Lazear ; Rosen, (1981), states that when an
organization insufficiently monitors its employees behaviors such that it possesses imperfect
information regarding employees skills and abilities, it is effective to administer a competition of
career advancement based on the indication of their exhibited abilities ( i.e. through the rank
order of job performance that reflects employees skills and abilities demonstrated on the job).If
tournament participants recognize that rewards presented to winners (i.e. prestigious
positions),they will work hard in pursuit of the prizes. In other words, winnings from career
competition between trained and non-trained employees are incentives to work hard and perform
well. According to the tournament theory, the effectiveness of training depends on the presence
of job security (i.e. training opportunities motivate employees whose job security is maintained
while are motivated by wages when employment is unstable).

2.2 Related Literature
2.2.1 Training
According to Michel Armstrong (2001), Training is a systematic development of the knowledge,
skills and attitudes required by an individual to perform adequately a given task or job.
According to the Edwin B Flippo (1984) Training is the act of increasing knowledge and skills of
an employee for doing a particular job. The term training indicates the process involved in
improving the attitudes, abilities and skills of the employees to perform specific jobs. Training
helps in improving old talents and developing new ones. Successful candidates placed on the
jobs need training to perform their duties effectively and efficiently.
Employees need continued training even after they have worked for the organization for years.
Training shows employees how to do the basic of their jobs and they help them improve their
skills. It also helps employees adapt to changes in the workplace, Certo (2006).The department
or management proposing the training begins the planning stage by setting objectives. The
training objectives should meet the criteria for effective objective. They should be written,
measurable, clear, specific and challenging but achievable.
They should also support the organization goals by helping develop the kind of employees who
can make the organization more competitive. Training may also take into account the interest
and motivation levels of employees as well as their skills. Training also has a significant effect
on employee performance. Organizations can create and enhance the quality of the current
employees by providing comprehensive training and development. Indeed, research indicates
that investments in training employees in problem-solving, teamwork and interpersonal relations
result in beneficial firm level outcomes, Russell and Powers (1985).

Motivational and environmental influences of training effectiveness have received little
attention. This analysis integrates important motivational and situational factors from
organizational behavior theory and research into a model which describes how trainees’ attributes
and attitudes may influence the effectiveness of training, Raymond (1986). According to Trever
(1991), training should improve the staff skills and change their attitudes towards work. Training
is a motivating factor and can enable the work force to get to higher levels. Organizations that
employ training have been known to achieve higher mission performance. Training also bridges
the gap of work performance versus the work goals attainment. There is therefore a continual
need for the process of staff development, and training to fulfill an important part of this process.
Training should be viewed therefore as an important part of the process of total quality
management.
2.2.2 Human Resource Management
It is necessary for the organization to restructure and reinforce the human assets to adapt itself to
changes. Business does not have unanimous methodologies for evaluation and it depends on
suitability, Bivainis and Morkvenas (2008). It is of great importance to any organization to strive
for the development of its employees as esteemed members of the organizational management
team. For the development of human asset, ‘training’ becomes the base.
It is the view of Beardwell and Holden (1993) that Human Resource Management concepts such
as commitment to the company and the growth in the quality movement have led senior
management teams to realize the increased importance of training, employee development and
long-term education. Such concepts require not only careful planning but a greater emphasis on
employee development.

For any organization to function effectively, it must have materials, supplies, money and
equipment, ideas about the services or products to offer those who might use its outputs and
finally employees, who are the human resource, to run the enterprise. Armstrong (1996), Human
Resource Management has emerged as a major function in most organizations and is the focus
for a wide-ranging debate concerning the nature of the contemporary employment relationships.
2.2.3 Job Training and Employee Performance
Studies by Cole (1997) defined training as a learning process which is aimed at impacting
knowledge and skills to enable the employee to execute their task better. This will help the
employee to acquire new information in relation to new technological knowhow and other
external forces emerging. Training has been recognized as a central role of management by
leading researchers. It is for this reason still, that the study seeks to establish whether job training
should be based on accumulated seniority or extra relevant qualifications and whether based on
the right criterion, leads to employee performance. Doeringer & Piore (1971), say that in order to
develop skills and abilities specific to the company, its significant from an organizational
perspective to train employees in accordance with their company’s specific skills and abilities.

Organizations can create and enhance the quality of the current employees by providing
comprehensive training and development. Indeed, research indicates that investments in training
employees in problem-solving, teamwork and interpersonal relations result in beneficial firm
level outcomes, Russell and Powers (1985). Jacoby (1984) and Morishima (1986), indicate that
training opportunities increase the level of individual performance and organizational
commitment among workers in their career advancement, influences the workers behaviors and
attitudes such as motivation and organizational commitment, particularly in the case of stable

employment. In upholding the views of Jacoby (1984) and Morishima (1986), Pigors and Myers
(1981), submitted that training should encourage those employees who make a successful effort
to increase their knowledge or skill. Bramley (1991) indicates that training is a component of
staff development and if carried out effectively, it can lead to improvement in the performance of
employees.
According to Bogonko ; Saleemi (1997), training is effective only when it is properly planned
and effectively executed. Training methods must be appropriate to the level of employees, the
nature of tasks and purpose of training. The effectiveness of a training program should be
evaluated so that necessary improvements may be made in it from time to time. Hence, training
must be carefully planned and evaluated and employees must be purposively selected.

The Training Policy Document for Telkom Orange, points out that in its training policy, that all
staff shall be encouraged through training to develop their potential and enhance their efficiency on
the job in the present and in the future which agrees with Buckley and Caples definition of training as
?a planned and systematic effort to modify or develop knowledge, skills or attitude through learning
experience, to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities”. Although most of
the empiricism posits that training is a correlate of individual job performance, few are on the
benefits as a motivator and none is in the context of Telkom Orange, a gap this study sought to fill.
All employees, regardless of their previous training, education and experience, must be given further
training. This is because the competence of workers will never last forever, due to such factors as
external and technological changes.

2.2.4 Importance of Training
Training helps in socially, intellectually and mentally developing an employee, which is very
essential in facilitating not only the level of performance but also the development of personnel
in any organization, Oatey (1970)
Staff training and development is a work activity that can make a very significant contribution to
the overall effectiveness and profitability of an organization, Adeniyi (1995). He also indicated
that some of the advantages for training are; job functionality, morale, improved quality of life,
efficiency, high skilled employees, keeping up with technology and optimum utilization of
resources.
2.2.5 Methods of Training
Many training techniques are created almost every year by the rapid development in technology.
Deciding among methods usually depends on the type of training intended, the trainees selected,
the objectives of the training program and the training method. Training is a situational process
that is why no single method is right for every situation. While some objectives could be easily
achieved through one method, other objectives could necessitate other methods. Many training
programs have learning objective in more than one area. When they do, they need to combine
several training methods into an integrated whole.
Training methods could be classified as cognitive and behavioral approaches. Cognitive methods
provide verbal or written information, demonstrate relationships among concepts, or provide the
rules for how to do something. These types of methods can also be called as off- the -job training
methods. On the other hand, behavioral methods allow trainee to practice behavior in real or
simulated fashion. They stimulate learning through behavior which is best for skill development

and attitude change. These methods can be called as on-the-job training methods. Thus; either
behavioral or cognitive learning methods can effectively be used to change attitudes, though they
do so through different means. Cognitive methods are best for knowledge development and
behavioral methods for skills, Blanchard and Thacker (1998).
The decision about what approach to take to training depends on several factors that include the
amount of funding available for training, specificity and complexity of the knowledge and skills
needed, timeliness of training needed, and the capacity and motivation of the learner. To be
effective, training method should; motivate the trainee to improve his or her performance, clearly
demonstrate desired skills, provide an opportunity for active participation by the trainee, provide
an opportunity to practice, provide timely feedback on the trainee’s performance, provide some
means for reinforcement while the trainee learns, be structured from simple to complex tasks, be
adaptable to specific problems, encourage positive transfer from training to the job, Woods
(1995).
a) Off-The-Job Training Methods
Training which takes place in environment other than actual workplace is called off-the-job
training. Off-the-job training is usually designed to meet the shared learning needs of a group
rather than a particular individual’s needs. Lectures, computer-based training, games and
simulations are the common forms of off-the-job training methods.
b) On-The-Job Training Methods
The purpose of the on-the-job training session is to provide employee with task-specific
knowledge and skills in work area. The knowledge and skills presented during on-the-job are
directly related to job requirements. Job instruction technique, job rotation, coaching and
apprenticeship training are the common forms of on-the job training methods. Job instruction

training is a structured approach to training, which requires trainees to proceed through a series
of steps in sequential pattern. The technique uses behavioral strategy with a focus on skill
development, but there are usually some factual and procedural knowledge objectives as well.
This type of training is good for task oriented duties such as operating equipment. The instructor
or supervisor prepares a job breakdown on the job, while watching an experienced worker
perform each step of the job. Job instruction technique consists of four steps, preparation,
present, try out and follow up, Blandchard and Thacker (1999).
Job rotation is the systematic movement of employees from job to job or project to project within
an organization, as a way to achieve various different human resources objectives such as:
simply staffing jobs, orienting new employees, preventing job boredom or burnout, rewarding
employees, enhancing career development, exposing employees to diverse environments, Woods
(1995). Excellent job rotation program can decrease the training costs while increases the impact
of training, because job rotation is a hand on experience. Job rotation makes individuals more
self-motivated, flexible, adaptable, innovative, eager to learn and able to communicate
effectively.
Coaching is the process of one-on-one guidance and instruction to improve knowledge, skills and
work performance. Coaching is becoming a very popular means of development, and often
includes working one-on-one with the learner to conduct a needs assessment, set major goals to
accomplish, develop an action plan, and support the learner to accomplish the plan. The learner
drives these activities and the coach provides continuing feedback and support. Usually coaching
is directed at employees with performance deficiencies, but also used as a motivational tool for
those performing well. Coaching methods solve precise problems such as communication, time
management and social skills, Kirwan (2000).

Apprenticeship is one of the oldest forms of training which is designed to provide planned,
practical instruction over a significant time span. Apprenticeship was the major approach to
learning a craft. The apprentice worked with a recognized master craft person, McNamara,
(2000).
2.2.6 External Factors affecting Training
Unionization is a major characteristic of determining whether organizations will undertake
training or not. If the labor union expects that the organization to increases salaries for its
employees, then the organization will not be able to train their employees as expected due to lack
of funds. Although the power of trade unions has declined in aggregate over the past quarter
century, unions are still found to have a positive impact on employment conditions such as
wages Jacoby (1995).Therefore, employees will get higher salaries but they will not be trained.
Employees’ performance towards their workforce will be shaped, not only by their knowledge,
but also by norms and culture about how training should be conducted and how the wider firm
should be run. One dimension is the extent to which organization training or not, in other words
their preference for enforcing training to improve employee performance. Woods, (2008).
2.2.7 Training Evaluation
The process of evaluating training has been defined by Holton (2002) as any attempt to obtain
information (feedback) on the effects of training programs, and to assess the value of the training
in the light of that information. Warr (1969) defined evaluation as the systematic collection and
assessment of information for deciding how best to utilize available training resources in order to
achieve organizational goals. From these definitions it follows that evaluation leads to control
which means deciding whether or not the training was worthwhile (preferably in cost-benefit
terms) and what improvements are required to make it even more efficient and effective.

Kirkpatrick (1994), indicates that organizations should start by measuring how trainees (the
employees being trained), reacted to the training. It’s important to measure reaction because it
helps you understand how well the training was received by your audience. The second level is
to measure what your trainees have learned. How much has their knowledge increased as a result
of the training? It’s important to measure this, because knowing what your trainees are learning
and what they aren’t will help you improve future training. The third level is to evaluate how far
your trainees have changed their behavior, based on the training they received. It’s important to
realize that behavior can only change if conditions are favorable. Finally you analyze the final
results of your training. This includes outcomes that you or your organization have determined to
be good for business, good for the employees, or good for the bottom line.

2.3 Conceptual Framework
The propose model is self made and looking at the literature review their gaps between training
and employee performance. Employee performance is a dependent variable and training and
development is the independent variable. Training and development variable is measured by the
following variables; Employee development which is subdivided into; Employee learning which
increase the abilities and competency of the employee (Dixon 1999). The abilities and
competencies are helpful in employee performance and productivity. Skill growth is possible
through training and coaching. The skill level will impact employee performance. When
employees are self directed, they develop a positive attitude towards training and indeed would
lead to employee performance (Elena P. 2000). When employee is nominated in different
workshops, and training sessions, the employee attitude and behavior will determine the
seriousness in training and development programs.
Training is also another variable subdivided into; off-the-job training, usually designed to meet
the shared learning needs of a group rather than a particular individual’s needs. Lectures,
computer-based training, games and simulations help the employee to acquire skills and leads to
high performance. On-the-job training session provide employees with task-specific knowledge
and skills in work area. They include Job instruction technique, job rotation, coaching and
apprenticeship training. Off-the-job training and on-the-job training are best for knowledge
development and skills development making employees perform highly, Blanchard and Thacker
(1998).Government, labor laws and culture serve as intervening variables. Employee
Performance means employee productivity and output as a result of training and development.
Employee performance leads to high productivity, effective performance and low wastage of
resources.

Figure 2.1 gives a framework illustrating how variables in the study are conceptualized and
related:
Figure 2.1 Conceptual Framework
Employee Development
? Skill Growth
? Higher job satisfaction
? Employee attitude and behavior
Employee Performance
? Effective performance
? Employee productivity
? Low wastage of
resources
Training
? On-the-job training
? Off-the-job training

Technology Government
? Improve methods of assessing training Labor Union

? Involve more practical training Culture

Independent Variables Moderating Variables Dependent
Variable

Source: Author 2013

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction
This Chapter presents the design, target population, location, sample, data collection method,
data procedure, testing, ethical consideration, data analysis and expected outcome in the study.
3.1 Research Design
This chapter describes the methods and procedures which were used to collect data on the effects
of Job Training on employee Performance in Telkom Orange Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. The
research study was a descriptive survey type involving informed and desirable persons. The
method chosen helped identify salient characteristics and unique features of target population to
very accepted degree. Employees were questioned using a set of standard questionnaires and
semi-structured interview guide/schedule. Mugenda and Mugenda (1999) describe a survey
design as an attempt to collect data from members of a population to determine the current status
of that population with respect to one or more variables.
3.2Target Population
The target population was 419 employees comprising of 44 top management employees, 165
middle level employees and 210 junior employees from all the entire department of Mass market
and Customer care, Information Technology, finance and account and human resource in Telkom
Orange Nakuru County, Kenya.
3.3 Sampling and Sample Procedure
To ensure all categories of employees were represented in the sampling process, stratified
random sampling technique was used to sample the survey respondents from the target
population. The employees were categorised into three strata of top level management, middle

level employees and the Junior employees. Since the target population, N, was known, the study
adopted the formula of Israel (1992) as shown in equation 1 below, to determine the sample size,
n, of survey respondents:
(Equation 1)

where n was the optimum sample size, N the number of target populationof employeees at
Telkom Orange, e the probability of error (i.e., the desired precision, e.g., 0.05 for 95%
confidence level). For example, Target population of 419 employees, implying n was
approximately 205 as derived in equation 2 below:
(Equation 2)

Using proportionate sampling, the sample size consequently comprised 22 top level
management, 81 middle level employees and 102 junior employees to make a total of 205
employees as shown in Table 3.1.

205 . 0.05)2 ( 419 1
419 ??????n 2)(1eN
Nn??

Table 3.1:Sampling frame
Population Category Telkom Orange Staff Sample Size Percentage Frequency
Top Level
Management
44 22 10.7
Middle Level
employees
165 81 49.8
Junior Employees 210 102 39.5
Total Population 419 205 100%

Source: Author 2013
3.4 Location
The study was conducted in Telkom Orange in Nakuru County and its environ because the town
is growing so fast in Kenya with all the mobile telephone companies. Since all the mobile
telephone companies are in Nakuru, there was a possibility that training was being conducted in
the companies.
3.5 Research Instruments
Open and structured questionnaires (see Appendix 1) were used to ensure that all respondents
replied to the same set of questions. Questionnaires was prefered because of the simplicity in
administration, scoring of items and analysis (Ary, 1979). In addition, interview guides (see
Appendix 2) were also used to interview the company managers to supplement findings from the
questionnaires. The choice of interview guide for the collection of data was justified by the fact
that an interview is the single best tool to be used for its flexibility and ability to probe and
obtain opinions from respondents. (Gay, 1996). They were also considered necessary as it helped
in securing clear and detailed information that can easily be left out in the questionnaires.

3.6 Piloting
3.6.1 Validity
Kothari (2004) defines validity, as the degree to which an instrument measures what it is
supposed to measure. The validity of the questionnaire was determined by ensuring that
questions or items in it conform to the study’s Conceptual Framework (Fig 2.1). The researcher
also used expert judgment which were done by contacting managers and other employees to
ensure the relevance, wording and clarity of the questions or items in the instrument.
3.6.2 Reliability
Gay (1996) defined reliability as the degree of consistency that the instrument demonstrates. The
researcher used pilot testing method because it was expected that some items or questions would
have several possible answers. The researcher established the reliability of the questionnaires by
computing the alpha coefficient of the items (questions) that constituted the dependent variable
and that of the items that constituted the independent variable.
3.7 Ethical Considerations
Transmittal letter from relevant authorities were issued to the management of Telkom Orange
stating who the researcher is and what type of research study the researcher undertook. The
researcher also indicated that the data collected was only be used for research purposes alone so
as to maintain confidentiality. The study didn’t not involve plagiarism materials because this
could have led to a serious and punishable offense.

3.8 Data Collection Procedure
Data was collected from employees of Telkom Orange using self-administered questionnaires.
Interviews were also conducted on managers from whom the researcher gathered more

perspectives. Transmittal letter was issued from the department to enable the researcher proceed
to the field
3.9 Data Analysis and Presentation
Data from the questionnaires were analyzed quantitatively using descriptive statistics like
frequency counts provided by SPSS. Data was processed by editing, coding, entering and then
presenting in comprehensive tables which showed the responses of each category of variables.
Job training was correlated with employee performance using Pearson’s Linear Correlation
Coefficient. Pearson’s was selected because the study entailed determining correlations or
describing the association between two or more variables (Oso & Onen 2008). Data recorded
from the interviews with the management staff was qualitatively analyzed. All the responses
were recorded and incorporated in Chapter four and five. Data was presented qualitatively and
quantitatively using statistics like tables, frequencies, percentages, pie chart and graphs which
were used to determine the proportion of respondents choosing the various responses.
3.10 Expected Outcome
The researcher expected the outcome of this research to help in the building of an effective and
efficient team that was able to achieve the objectives as stated in the background of this proposal
and subsequently those the Telkom Orange Kenya. The researcher also expected the study to
help identify training gaps so that the management can advice its staff on areas of training. The
research should also be a useful tool for career management of the staff within the department
and it should also ensure all employees become productive and well developed at work

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF RESULTS
4.1 Introduction of Data Analysis
This chapter presents the analysis of data collected and presentation of results. The summary is
organized under the following headings, age of respondents, gender of respondents, education
background, job position of respondents, year of service in the company, participation in
training, number of times respondents involved in training, formulation of employee training
policy, objectives of training, training need assessment, training budget, methods of training,
planned or systematic training, accessibility of training, sponsorship for further studies, rating the
organization in terms of training, effects of training on employee performance, training
evaluation and correlation test between job training and employee performance. The analysis and
findings are summarized into percentages and frequencies, graphs, charts and table which have
been used to present data.
4.2 Preliminary Information
4.2.1 Response Rate
From an approximated sample size of 209 employees, the researcher issued 209 questionnaires to
all the sampled employees to assist in ascertaining the required information. The respondents
were issued with the data collection tool for two weeks prior to analysis time and before the
expiry of the allocated duration. The researcher made repeated visits to ensure higher response
rate. However all efforts resulted into a completed lot of 180 questionnaires. Top level managers
were interviewed from the four departments in the company to supplement findings from the

questionnaires. Therefore the response rate was 86%. All reported findings and generalizations
were derived out of this scope of respondents.
4.3 Demographic Information
Table 4.1 Age distribution of respondents
Age of respondents Frequency Percentage (%)
21-35 97 53
36-45 65 36
46-55 13 8
56-60 5 3
Total 180 100

Source: Researcher 2013
The study sought to find out the age distribution of respondents. Table 4.1 shows that 53% of the
respondents in the study had an age between 21-35, 36% had an age between 36-45, 8% had an
age between 46-55 and 3% had an age between 56-60.Therefore most of the respondents had an
age between 21-35.
Table 4.2 Gender of Respondents
Gender Frequency Percentage
Male 96 53
Female 84 47
Total 180 100
Source: Researcher 2013

The study sought to find out the gender of the respondents. Table 4.1 shows that 53% the
respondents in the study were male while 47% of the respondents were female. Therefore there
was an almost equal representation of the two genders in the sample of the study. The figure
below shows a graphical representation
Figure 4.1 Gender of Respondents

Source: Researcher 2013
Table 4.3 Education Background
Education Level Frequency Percentage
High School 5 3
Diploma 85 47
Degree 77 43
Masters 10 5
PhD 3 2
Total 180 100

Source: Researcher 2013
Gender
Male 53%
Female 47%

The study was also keen in finding out the education level or qualification of respondents in the
field. From those who reached high school level to those with PhD, the highest percentage was
those with diploma with a percentage of 47%.They were followed closely with degree holders
with 43%, then master degree holders with 5%,high school level 3% and the least number of
respondents were PhD holders with 2%. From a good analytical point of view, those with
diploma and degrees are most eligible and are better placed in terms of job opportunity in
Telkom Orange. A graphical representation is shown in the figure below.
Figure 4.2: Education Background

Source: Researcher 2013
4.4 Training and Employee Performance
Table 4.4 Position Held by Respondents
Position Frequency Percentage
Top Level Management 20 11
Middle Level Employees 65 36
Lower Level Employees 95 53
Total 180 100
Source: Researcher 2013
Education Background
High school 3%
Diploma 47%
Degree 43%
Masters 5%
PhD 2%

The researcher was also interested in finding out the position held by respondents in Telkom
Orange, Nakuru. Majority of the respondents were the lower level employees making the highest
percentage of 53%.Those in the middle management had the second highest percentage of
36%.Top level management had the lowest percentage of 11%.The study majorly concentrated
on the effect of job training on middle and lower level employees.
Figure 4.3 Position Held by Respondents.

Source: Researcher 2013
Table 4.5 Year of Service in the Organization
Frequency Percentage
5 Years or Less 70 39
5-10 Years 95 53
10 Years and Above 15 8
Total 180 100
Source: Researcher 2013
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Top Level ManagementMiddle level
Employees
Lower Level Employees

The study also sought to find out the number of years the respondents have been with Telkom
Orange as depicted in the table above. This was of importance because it gave the true picture
and the element of experience is covered as per respondent opinion. Majority of the respondents
have been with Telkom Orange for 5-10 years. They had a percentage of 53%., those with 5
years and below had 39% and lastly 10 years and above had 8%.This depict that a larger number
of the respondents has been in Telkom Orange for 5-10 years and know what they are talking
about and thus gave a true image of Telkom Orange on the areas the research seeks to cover.
Table 4.6 Number of Times Respondents get Involved in Training.
Frequency Percentage
Only Once 20 11
Twice 25 14
Several Times 120 67
Never 15 8
Total 180 100

Source: Researcher 2013
The researcher sought to find out how often the respondents were involved in training. Table 4.3
indicates that 8% of the respondents were never involved in training, 11% had only once been
involved in training and 14% had been involved twice in training. The finding also indicates that
majority of the respondent had been involved in training for several times. This therefore depicts
that Telkom Orange trains their employees to improve their performance.

Figure 4.4 Whether Telkom Formulate Employee training Policy

Source: Researcher 2013
From the figure above the researcher was covering the aspect of training policy and if it has been
implemented in Telkom Orange.54%said yes and had the following opinion;
? It only benefits a few fellows from specific departments.
? The policy is not effective.
? The policy should be improved by the management.
? There is lack of funds to implement the policy in the company.
46% of the respondent said that training policy was not there but it seemed they were not aware
of it because of ignorance and it had not been communicated to them.

Whether Telkom Orange Formulate
Employee Training Policy
Yes
No

Table 4.7 Objective of training
Frequency Percentage
To examine the aspect of job training on employee
performance

85 47
To determine how technological change affect the
performance of employees

20 12
To identify if the management train their employees to
enhance their performance

40 22
To investigate how effective the employee training and
development is for any organization

35
19
Total 180 100

Source: Researcher 2013
The researcher also wanted to identify the objective of job training in Telkom Orange. Majority
of the respondent with 47% indicated that the objective was to examine the aspect of job training
on employee performance.22% indicated that the objective was to identify if the management
train their employees to enhance their performance, 19% indicated that the objective was to

investigate how effective employee training is for any organization and lastly 12% indicated that
the objective was to determine how technological change affect the performance of employees.
Figure 4.5 Methods Used for Training

Source: Researcher 2013
The researcher went a step further to find out which training method if frequently used at Telkom
Orange. Majority of the respondents with 61% said that on-the-job training method is frequently
used while 39% said that off-the-job training is the method used. Accordingly, the managers
were asked to identify the training types and methods used. Regarding the types of training, they
indicated that Telkom Orange engages in orientation training for new employee, refresher
training for existing employees, job training, and career development training. Regarding
training methods, they mentioned on-the- job training and off- the- job training method.

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
On-the-job TrainingOff-the-job Training
Methods Used for Training
Methods Used for Training

Figure 4.6 Whether Training is planned or systematic

Source: Researcher 2013
The researcher wanted to find out whether training is planned or systematic in Telkom
Orange.58% of the respondents said it was planned while 42 % of the respondents said it was
systematic. This finding indicates that most the times Telkom Orange plan for their employee
training.
4.5 Performance Improvement
Table 4.8 How adequate is training conducted in the Company
Frequency Percentage
Only the Top Level 10 6
Only the Middle Level Employees 50 28
Only the Lower Level Employees 30 16
All the employees 90 50
Total 180 100
Source: Researcher 2013
Whether Training is Planned or Systematic
Planned
Systematic

From the table above 50% of the respondents said that training is conducted to all employees in
the organization.28% said that training is conducted to only the middle level employees and 16%
of the respondents said that only the lower level employees receive training. The least number of
employees with 6% said that training is only conducted to the top level management.
Figure 4.7 Budget for Employees Training

Source: Researcher 2013
The figure above indicates whether Telkom Orange has a budget for employee training.61% of
the respondents indicated that the company had a budget for employee training but were not
aware of the amount allocated.39% of the respondents said the company had no budget for
training. This depicts that the company usually budget for their employee training to a certain
level.

Whether the Company hasBudget for
Employee Training
Yes
No

Table 4.9 How Training Need is Determined
Frequency Percentage
Performance Appraisal 35 19.4
Business and Human Resource Plan 40 22.3
General employee performance 60 33.3
No Idea 45 25
Total 180 100
Source: Researcher 2013
The researcher sought to find out how training need assessment is determiner at Telkom
Orange.33.3% said it was determined through general employee performance, 22.3% said that it
was determined through business and human resource plan, 19.4% said it was being determined
through performance appraisal and 25% of the respondents had no idea of how training need is
determined in the company.
Figure 4.7 Sponsorship for Further Studies

Source: Researcher 2013
0
50
100
YesNo
Whether Employees are being Sponsored for
Further Studies
Whether Employees are being
Sponsored for Further Studies

The researcher also sought to find out whether respondents were being sponsored for further
studies in the company. Majority of the respondents with 83% disagreed and said they were
never sponsored for further studies in the company. Only 17% agreed to have been sponsored for
training. This shows that Telkom Orange prefers training their employees in the company rather
than sponsoring them for further studies.
Table 4.10 Rating the Organization in Relation to training
Rating Frequency Percentage
Very High 10 6
Highly 65 36
Moderately 80 44
Not a Training Company 25 14
Total 180 100

Source: Researcher 2013
The findings of the research indicated that 6% of the respondent rated training in Telkom Orange
as very high, 14% indicated that there was no training, 36% rated training as high and 44%
which is the majority rated training as moderate in the organization. The figure below shows a
graphical representation

Figure 4.8 Rating the Organization in relation to Training

Source: Researcher 2013
4.6 Effect of Training on Employee Performance
Table 4.11 Motivation through Training
Frequency Percentage
No extent 25 14
Little Extend 60 33
Moderate Extend 85 47
Great Extend 10 6
Total 180 100

Source: Researcher 2013
The researcher also sought to find out what extend did training motivate employees and the
conclusion was that it does to some moderate extent with 47%.Other respondents indicated that
0
10
20
30
40
50
Very HighHighlyModerateNot a learning
Organization
Rating the Organization in Relation to
Training
Rating the Organization in
Relation to Training

training motivates them to a little extend with 33%.followed by 14% no extent of motivation and
lastly 6% with great extend.
Figure 4.9 Employee Potential for Development through Training

Source: Researcher 2013
Similarly, the respondents were asked if training offered them an opportunity to identify any
potential they have for further development. In the opinion of the respondents, 67% of them
indicated that training has not offered any opportunity for personal development. The remaining
33% indicated that training had offered them an opportunity for personal development.
Figure 4.10 Opinion of training leads to employee performance

Source: Researcher 2013
0
20
40
60
80
YesNo
Employee Potention for Development
Employee Potention for
Development
Whether Training leads to Employee
Performance
Yes
No

The study also sought to find out whether training effects employee performance in Telkom
Orange. Figure 4.7 indicates that 67% of the respondents agreed that training leads to employee
performance in different ways.33% of the respondents disagreed that training doesn’t lead to
better performance. This indicates that training in Telkom Orange leads to employee
performance.
4.7 Participation in Training
In line with the first research question in the interview, the researcher wanted to ascertain
whether Telkom Orange has been involved in training and development for the past10 years. An
interview with the top level management indicated that Telkom Orange has been involved in
training for well over the 10 years. This was confirmed by the information contained in other
related documents on training that most employees have had some form of training or the other.
As a company, it is clear to the managers of Telkom Orange that training could be used to induct
new employees and improve performance of existing employees. From the interviews training
was part of the early beginnings of Telkom Orange and has continued since.
4.8 How Training is Evaluated
When it came to how training is usually evaluated, the top level management said that not much
has been done to evaluate training but they have plans of how they will be evaluating it. The
other employees said that they had no idea of how training is being evaluated in the organization.

4.9 Correlation Test
Table 4.12 Correlation between Job Training and Employee Performance.
Variable How many
times have
you had any
form of
training
Objectives of
the training
Methods used
for the
Training
Number of
employee
trained
Employees
potential for
development
Pearson
Correlations
0.653 0.413 0.586 0.012
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.003 0.642 0.008 0. 872
Improvement
of employee
performance
Pearson
Correlations
0.645 0.711 0.567 0.618
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.004 0.132 0.016 0.017
Motivation of
employees
Pearson
Correlations
0.793 0.083 0.963 0.031
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.024 0.502 0.010 0.821
Self
sponsored
yourself for
further studies
to upgrade
your skills.
Pearson
Correlations
0.682 0.053 0.614 0.258
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.014 0.873 0.013 0.376
**Significant correlation (P