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In 1848, the people of Europe wanted change. They were inspired by the Enlightenment and began to revolt against European monarchs.
The French Revolution of 1848 began because the middle and lower classes did not like Louis Philippe. Phillippe was a monarchist who neglected the needs of the peasant class. As tension built and the peasants were inspired by liberalism and the revolt began. Ultimately, Philippe was ousted and France was declared a sovereign Republic state.
The revolutions in the German States in 1848 brought many violent uprisings in Prussia and Austria. The Frankfurt Parliament drafted a Constitution for a unified Germany and offered the unified German Empire to the Prussian King but he refused to accept it and the things fell apart.
The Italian revolution of 1848 was an attempt at unification. Italy was fragment and dominated by foreign nations. There were three unsuccessful revolutions, in the north, a rebellion against the Austrians, in the south, a Sicilian revolt against the Bourbons and in central Italy an attempt to establish a roman republic.
For the most part, the revolutions of 1848 failed to achieve their goals because of a lack of strong allies and support, weak military support of the rulers, and the division among the revolutionaries.
B) Describe three changes to European society unleashed by the industrial revolution. Why do you think children were used for child labor at that time?
Along with the growth in the iron and coal industries and the development of the steam engine, there were no laws to regulate the industry created by the Industrial Revolution and things were out of control. The cities grew in population, causing overcrowding and ultimately, poor public health. People were seeking work and many were unemployed and those who were employed were forced to work long hours for low wages in order to keep their jobs. The working conditions were terrible, especially for the poor. The government set up “poorhouses” which were run like prisons in hopes of deterring entrance. An increase in the middle class due to a need for white collar workers
Child labor was the cheapest labor. Operating the machines was a simple and repetative task. Children did not try to join labor unions or go on strike and they were paid only 1/10 of what men paid.

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