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Introduction
From an early age, youngsters broaden the knowledge, skills, and values they may use in making the acquisition decisions now and in future. Children depend on their parents and peers as well on advertising to learn how to act as a consumer. Commercial appeals to children have become a commonplace for the marketers due to the widespread endorsement of television. Majority of children in US have televisions in their bedrooms. Children Advertising associates with the television spots that feature toys and food products rich in fat and other essential nutrients for children. The new advertising techniques using attractive peer models has led to the marketing techniques which involve enclosing products in films, online and in video games. In this literature review, we will study about the influence of using attractive peer models in Advertising and the Advertising effectiveness for the children age 8-12 years. This literature review focuses on Child Advertisement, Advertisements on peer models, Advertising Effectiveness, the influence of Children’s cognitive development on advertising, effects of using attractive models in advertising. Does the moderately attractive (vs. less attractive) models increase attitudes and buying intentions for 8 years old and above? The topic also covers whether the physical attractiveness stereotype applies to children? Whether children’s self-perception towards an ad are influenced by attractiveness of an advertising model?
Children has been targeted for decades for two trends that have increased the marketer’s interest in child consumers. First, children’s influence their parents to purchase product for them has increased over time. Second, it has become easy for the marketers to focus on smaller audience from specific channels available on televisions for children creating media space just for children’s products. In short, we can say that children grow up in a highly practical marketing environment that influences their preferences and behaviours. Before starting it is important to know the definition of Advertising:
“Advertising is now part of the interstitial tissue of daily life on this planet. Yet, the effects of advertising are often anything but clear or easily detected. In fact, the effects of advertising run the gamut from obvious to perplexing and contradictory. On the one hand, most people, most of the time, don’t care much about ads.” (Waterson, 1984).

Child advertisement
Nowadays, marketers focus on children advertisement meaning advertising children’s products showing peer models of their age. This makes children aware about the products by seeing advertisements repeatedly and exerting pressure on their parents to buy the product. In short, we could say that Child advertisements refers to the act of advertising children’s products or services by using attractive peer models to directly reach child audience. Children’s products include the food products, sweets, clothes, shoes, and games. On average children in US spend 28 hours a week watching TV and are exposed to over 20,000 commercials per year. “Marketing firms and advertisers are looking to a younger demographic, increasingly targeting tweens and even younger children. And these kids have huge control over the flow of parents’; spending, statistics show—8- to 12-year-olds spend $30 billion of their own money each year and influence another $150 billion of their parents’; spending” (William M. O’Barr, 2008).
Children are influenced by what they see in the commercials and do not have enough knowledge of the commercials. Therefore, children do not understand the difference between the reality and the fantasy. They believe that the products advertised in the advertisements will be exactly same as they
Priya Sharma 3

appear on screen. Children do not understand the message behind the advertisements but instead they pressurize their parents to buy the product. This is also called pester power meaning children pester their parents to buy the products for them which they want. “There is a popular assumption that the increased influence and exposure of television advertising to children ultimately undermines the authority of parents who eventually succumb to their children’s demands. It has been suggested that two-thirds of children’s pestering results in a purchase” (Procter and Richards, 2002). Marketers target kids by advertising through social media example, television, Facebook, YouTube etc. and Word of mouth.

Advertisement on peer models
Peer modelling refers to teach school aged children to help learn the social skills and help them to know products for them keeping them up to date with the new modern trends and demands. A peer model is a child who shows good social behaviours and is interested in teaching those skills to other children. “Celebrities frequently endorse products, brands, political candidates, or health campaigns. Celebrity endorsements are a well-established marketing strategy used since the late nineteenth century. Current estimates indicate every fourth to fifth advertisement incorporates this strategy, though this varies across countries.” (Knoll and Matthes, 2016). “Physical beauty has long been celebrated and appreciated by society. It is useful to note that most of the research on physical attractiveness has been concentrated on facial attractiveness.” (Attractive Models, 2013)
Children appraise others on number of aspects for example, physical countenance such as appearance and allure. Commercials with attractive models are positive and have power to influence people’s mind. This positivity is transferred to consumers’ attitudes toward the brand or product, and result in greater purchase intentions. Peer Advertising is considered as a strongest trait for most of the businesses or brands in this modern era. The job of every marketer is to create content that resonates with people and is worth sharing in like-minded networks.

Definition of Culture
“Culture is derived from a Latin word “Cultura” meaning “cultivation” and was first used by
Romans; but Germans practiced sociological meanings of culture two hundred years ago
under the title of “kulturges-chichte” (Burke, 2008).
“Culture determines what is acceptable or unacceptable, important or unimportant, right or wrong, workable or unworkable. It encompasses all learned and shared, explicit or tacit, assumptions, beliefs, knowledge, norms, and values, as well as attitudes, behaviour, dress, and language.” (BusinessDictionary.com, 2018).
“Latorre defines “Culture” as the “teaching of unusual, false or trivial aspects of lifestyle chosen mainly because they appear different from North American ways and are thereby assumed, often mistakenly, to be more interesting to the foreign language learner” (673). Another form of Culture is what we associate with famous writers from a country, when they address the values of their society. Finally, the third type of Culture to which Latorre refers is that dimension of the target language that even

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