Kalibangan is settled on the southern bank, i.e. the neighbourhood of the river Ghaggar. the site was discovered by Luigi Pio Tessitori in 1916-18. He recognized it as a preMauryan site. the site was visited by Aurel Stein in 1940 – 41, however he missed its Harappan significance. it was placed on the Harappan map by A. Ghosh’s exporations in 1950-51.
Excavation at Kalibangan were undertaken by B.B. Lal and B.K. Thapar from 1960 to 1969. Kalibangan consists of two main mounds – the smaller amd higher one (citadel) towards the west and the lower and bigger one (lower town) towards the east. A 40 m wide open areaseparates the citadel and the lower city. there is also a smaller third mound, about 100 m further east of the lower town. the totalperimeter of the area coated by these mounds is between 1.50 and 2.00 km and is up to 10 m high from the surrounding plain. both the citadel and also the lower city were fortified.
The fortification was roughly on the lines of a parallelogram, with eastern and western arms running along the cardinal directions, while the other two, i.e. the northern and southern arms were deviating towards east – northeast rather than following east – west alignment.
Excavations at Kalibangan brought to light two cultural periods – the Mature Harappan and, below it, the early Harappan. The remains of the early Harappan found solely in the citadel area excavations disclosed that in the lower city area, though the scattered Early Harappan pottery was encountered at very cheap levels, no habitational proof of the period was found. the whole Early Harappan habitational deposit was about 1.60 m which may be divided into five structural phases.