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MODULE 1:
DOCTORAL MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PERSPECTIVES
Assignment I & II
by
Al Ashram A.J.

Presented to Swiss Business School
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of
DOCTOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
In Exclusive Collaboration with Al Tareeqah Management Studies
United Arab Emirates
SWISS BUSINESS SHOOL
September 2011
DECLARATION
I, Ashraf Al Ashram, hereby declare this assignment is the original my work, I am aware of and understand the School´s policy on plagiarism, as well as the SBS Swiss Business School procedures, which are detailed in the
handbook.

Signed:
Ashraf Al Ashram
September, 2018
Table of Contents
Assignment I
Assignment I
4
Introduction …………………………………………………………………. 4
Aims and Objectives of the Assignment ……………………………………. 4
Manager Role and responsibilities ………………………………………….. 4
3.1 Planning ………………………………………………………… 4
3.2 Organizing ……………………………………………………… 5
3.3 Leading …………………………………………………………. 5
3.4 Controlling ……………………………………………………… 5
Manager`s Role challenges …………………………………………………. 5
Conclusion ………………………………………………………………….. 6
List of references ……………………………………………………………. 7
Assignment 2
8
Introduction…………………………………………………………………… 8
Aims and Objectives of the Assignment…………………………………… 8
Henry Mintzberg cluster roles for managers 8
How a manager can add the role of academic researcher to the cluster roles.. 9
Differences implied by the approach………………………………………… 10
Academic researcher Challenges and requirement in conjunction with the cluster roles of a manager………………………………………………… 11
Conclusion 13
List of references 14
Assignment I
As outlined in section, you need to submit a 1000 word summary which supports your assignment of your reflections about some researchable issues drawn from your experience of the manager’s role.

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Introduction
Manager plays a critical role in achieving organizational success. The major challenge managers facing is to provide creative solutions to the organizational issues for ensuring uninterrupted growth.
Aims and Objectives of the Assignment
The major aims and objectives of this assignment are listed below:
Identifying and Analyzing the roles of manager in organization.

Define manager’s role challenges
Briefing researchable issues related to Manager`s role.
Manager Role and responsibilities
One of major responsibility of the manager is to think strategically and find solutions to the organizational problems to ensure successful achievement of the organizational vision and goals. The classical and modern theories of management have devided the responsibilities of the manager in four major categories: planning, organizing, leading and controlling. The four functions managers are linked with undertaking the organizational activities. This section will provide an overview of these four functions on the basis of the past researches, current theories and management approaches.

Planning
Planning identified as setting different activities to match objectives and goals of the organization. Part of responsibility of the manager is to consider all external and internal conditions for making effective decision and planning. Planning combining various analysis of the environment which identifying the contingencies which can be encountered by the organization in terms of its competitors and economic conditions (Beardwell and Thompson, 2014). Hence, the major activities of planning includes decision making regarding setting goals, forecasting, scheduling, resourcing, setting standards and developing the procedure for monitoring (Pinnington, Macklin and Campbell, 2007).
Organizing
Organizing is one of the most important functions of management which is engaged in the development of the organizational structure that allows allocation of the human resource in order to accomplish the objectives. The structure of the company is a framework and the employees co-ordinate their effort within it. Organizing function is associated with designing the individual job responsibilities and makes decision regarding duties and targets. Initially the job designing function of the manager was based on the principles of the separation of labor as well as specialization (Collings and Wood, 2009). Presently managers are focusing on the concepts of team work, job enrichment and empowerment. There are various methods for departmentalizing which including organizing in terms of product, functions etc.

Leading
Leading is linked with the social and informal sources which helps in influencing the activities of others. Research studies have indicated that with assistants of highly motivated effective leaders organizational goals can be achieved . Behavioral scientists have been interested to understand the major leading functions of management. Studies regarding personality and attitude towards job have provided information regarding functions of management. It has been found that understanding the personalities, attitudes values and emotions are very important to be effective leader (Kramar and Syed, 2012).

Controlling
Controlling is associated with ensuring the organizational performance alignment with the standard. Controlling functions start from establishment of the standard for performance. Therefore, comparison of the actual performance against standard will be undertaken (Katsioloudes and Katsioloudes, 2006). The next step will be taking corrective measures according to the requirement. The standard of performance is expressed in various terms such as cost, revenue, bottom line, number of defective product etc. Effective organizational control requires the necessity of a plan (Salaman, 2001). It has been observed that planning provides efficient tools for setting standards. Performance and budget audit are two popular and effective controlling mechanisms. The production and operational activities are also controlled in order to ensure compliance with the organizational policies.

Manager`s Role challenges
As stated above , the main role of Manager is to make decisions and to deliver solutions to the organizational problems. No matter which industry manager is involved in, there are common challenges which create questions required to locate answers and solutions.

Main researchable issues related to Managers’ role are not limited with mentioned bellow subject but the common challenges recommended to be researched are as fallowing:
1. How to communicate with people and control resources to achieve an aggressive goal
The organization Manager is responsible for something — whether it’s performing a business process, developing a new product or expending customers platform. There are goals linked with your objectives, and if organization is aggressive then goals need more than the typical effort. It’s going to take some serious planning for manager to figure out communication protocols with people and controling resources to achieve an aggressive goal.
2. Bringing Out the Best from Employees
Employees have good days and bad days. But it’s important that you take masures to make as many days as possible “good days.”
3. Dealing with Underperforming EmployeesNot all employees doing their best. In reality, issue that contributes to an underperforming employee is a Manager problem. Manager has to help employees to avoid any impact of on employee performance.

5. Hiring the Right People within assigned budget.

Hiring new people can be difficult for managers and it will be challenge in some industries to hire qualified people within assigned budget.
6. Responding to a Crisis
No matter how much planning you do, No matter what type of industry, things can go wrong, critical times are very common during all projects life cycle, and response required decision making.

Planning is a part of managing, but perhaps more important is a manager’s ability to change plans on the fly in response to changing conditions. When a crisis hits, you have to be able to deal with it — calmly, quietly and without being overwhelmed by stress.

7. Continuous Improvement
No matter how good organization gets, it can do better. There’s always some improvements that can be made: a change in a process, a better working environment, better employee motivation, more focus on the essentials. If you ever get to the point where you honestly have no idea how to improve things further, then you should either (a) seek outside advice, or (b) look for another job. There’s always a better way, and you have to keep looking for it.

Conclusion
Manager role is complicated. It requires skills ,motivation, experience and wisdom. But most of all it requires commitment — the commitment needed to rise mainly to these seven challenges.

List of references
Beardwell, J. and Thompson, A. (2014). Human resource management. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.

Collings, D. and Wood, G. (2009). Human resource management. London: Routledge.

Holden, L. and Beardwell, I. (2001). Human resource management. Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Katsioloudes, M. and Katsioloudes, M. (2006). Strategic management. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.

Kramar, R. and Syed, J. (2012). Human resource management in a global context. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

McLoughlin, D. and Aaker, D. (2010). Strategic market management. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.

Morden, T. (2007). Principles of strategic management. Aldershot, England: Ashgate.

Pinnington, A., Macklin, R. and Campbell, T. (2007). Human resource management. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Salaman, G. (2001). Understanding business. London: Routledge in association with the Open University.

Shekhar Singh, A. (2012). Retailing in 21st Century: Current and Future Trends. Jnl of Product ; Brand Mgt, 21(3), pp.226-227.

Assignment II
Henry Mintzberg and other writers have talked about the cluster of roles that manager performs. How does a manager add the role of academic researcher to the cluster? What differences in approach does this imply? What challenges does this present?
In the context of the literature you have considered for the course and the seminar discussion, explain what you see as the requirements to pursue the role of academic researcher in conjunction with performance as a manager.

Support your explanation by reference to the views of other writers in the literature. (2000 words).

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Introduction
Management role received attention and interest of many researchers. There are many different managerial roles and duties within an organization that specify managers’ duties in the organization. To execute these roles, managers need to be complete business professionals who understand in depth the meaning of strategic, operational, and tactical responsibilities. With the idea of Henry Mintzberg and other scholars about a cluster of managers roles in an organization, this paper presents a literature review on how academic researcher affects the cluster of roles of a manager. It highlight the requirements necessary for a manager to effectively preform his academic research together with the management functions without failure in the performance..

Aims and Objectives of the Assignment
The major objectives of this assignment are w:
To identify the roles of Managers within Organization.

To discuss How academic researcher can add to the manager cluster roles.

To brief the Challenges facing academic researcher in conjunction with the cluster roles of a manager .

Henry Mintzberg cluster roles for managers
Henry Mintzberg the thinker who had a deep knowledge about how managers perceive their roles while linking to theory and practice. According to him, the manager work is characterized by interruptions, fragmentation, pace, and brevity of business activities. In his researches and publication, he identified ten major roles of managers to ensure effective performance in the organization. These ten roles are gathered into three main clusters, each cluster summarizes a role of the manager based on the strategic objective of the organization according to Bareham, Bourner, and Stevens (2000, p.394). These clusters are the interpersonal, decision-making, and informational roles ( figure 1).

The manager acts as the leader who represents the organization, leads the staff, and communicates between the external environment and the organization. For the informational role, the manager monitor the flow of information outside and within the organization, disseminates the applicable information to the relevant target audience, and acts as a spokesperson on behalf of the organization. In the decision-making role, the manager acts as an leader that initiates a course of action with the intention of changing something within the organization. The manager also reacts in handling the rising disturbances, allocating resources like money, equipment, jobs, etc., and also negotiating or trading resources with other stakeholders.

Figure 1: Clusters of managerial roles
How a manager can add the role of academic researcher to the cluster roles
In his definition, Robinson (1993) stated that academic research in business is the organized and systematic way to investigate a conceivable problem that a manager may faces in business. It is scientific step-by-step logical approach that deals with conflicts of strategic, operations, marketing, administrative and systematic responsibilities in an organization. Academic research in organizational management can be implemented in different strategic management responsibilities. For example, applied research is used in fixing and defining proper actions that can be implemented in a common problems encountered by managers which demand timely solutions. For a business manager, the knowledge in academic research is very important as basic research allows managers to understand how specific problems experienced in the organizations can be explained as and how the knowledge can be used in solving issues at later dates.

 
Regardless of the fact that the solutions may be different, Dent (2002) explained that challenges faced by managers follow similar steps that need a scientific procedure in adopting strategic solutions. Through academic research, managers can identify and find answers to different challenges, issues, and concerns as well as actions that can be taken in finding relevant and effective solutions. In support of the previous statement, Sekaran and Boguie (2014) point out that academic research skills enhancing decision-making by managers to deal with the challenges they experience within the organizations successfully. Denzin and Lincoln (1994) also stated that managers having academic research skills are in a better position in handling different problems. He gains vital decision-making skills that give him incredible economic saving potentials that can benefit the economic progress of the organization.

The manager can also improve their skills in research knowledge from both internal and external research consultants and those retrieved from different academic publications addressing similar issues. As a result, the managers can take calculated and intelligent risks with known probabilities attached to the failure of success of the management decisions. For this reason, academic research is an important tool for decision-making rather than just generating large statistical information. In critical moments of decision-making, managers with a basic understanding of research and managerial roles are the key players in the digital error when it comes to business management. The research knowledge and skills are required after resources that are critical in mitigating strategic failures faced by organizations. Therefore, understanding of the relationship between management decisions and research is very important for managers to improve and resolve any issues in the organization.

Differences implied by the approach
According to Agnew and Pyke (1994), research is not limited by set of technical skills which can easily be added to a focused and clever individual in a managerial position. More is involved when we consider the complex human dynamics that differ significantly among cultures and people. While taking care of employees and activities in the organization, a good manager requires more than set of skills necessary for research but also a good attitude towards delivering the values of the organization according to Rosenberg (2015, p. 6). The study of management by individuals such as Fayol, Hamel, Kotter, and Mintzberg can be captivated but the similar ideas yet differences in understanding on how management roles differ. Many agree to the basic managerial role as defined by Fayol (1949) as being organizing, planning, coordinating, controlling, and commanding,- Mintzberg (1973) as noted by Whitley (1984, p. 370). However, the above definitions does not only focus on the internal factors influencing managers but the external influences and using a system approach to management.

Managers do not only concentrating on planning, commanding, coordinating, organizing, or controlling, but also performs like meetings, building relationships, and dealing with other clients. It also means that the role of a manager is more and needs more systematic study. As a result, one cannot draw simple conclusions and judgments as there is no uniform consensus to the standardization of the skills and roles required for an effective manager as denoted by Kilduff and Mehra (1997, p. 454). The management role is thus multifaceted as it exhibits both uniqueness and similarities depending on the industry and the company and cannot just describe as it is done by many researchers. For the more, many organizations have unique individual cultures that bring a difference in how responsibilities and roles are propagated within the organization. 
According to Agnew and Pyke (1994), the responsibilities of managers are essentially integrating activities which permeate every facet of the strategic operations of an organization. However, there does not exist any one-type-fit kind of concept as there are considerable variations in the skills necessary for managers to comply with many different organizational roles. From leading teams of employees to resolving conflicts of stakeholders of the organization, negotiating contracts, to ensuring successful recruitment processes, the manager continuously changes roles depending on changing of tasks, situations, and organizational expectation. At this point the academic research role comes to effectively equip the manager on the operational and strategic responsibilities of their roles.  As advised by Wankel and Fillipi (2002), a manager needs to be a coach, a problem-solver, an organizer, a trainer, a decision-maker, and a cheerleader. These roles are various and can be change from time to time hence require a manager to have a deep understanding of all the functions within the business. The academic research role hence supports the manager with effective organizing goals, accountability, and appropriate way of satisfying both external and internal clients within the organization.

Academic researcher Challenges and requirement in conjunction with the cluster roles of a managerIn pursuing the role of academic research and effective achievement of the organizational roles require two major factors i.e. strategic implementation and proper decision-making. In the process of managing organizational activities and resources, very few strategies are realized successfully. One survey after another proves that strategic implementation has become a top priority for business executives to ensure effective management roles. Kilduff and Mehra (1997) stated that less than 15% of organizations globally report their success towards strategic implementation. However, the same study reports a failure rate of 60% to 90%, where the majority fails at the strategic phase of the implementation process. 
A big percentage of these failures are referred to poor strategic implementation due to management roles and elements that were under control.  Keeping balance between academic research and the managerial responsibilities require effective and relevant steps to ensure a strategic implementation process that can effectively assist the organization to achieve its strategic objectives. Rosenberg (2015) points out many reasons why many organizations experience the failure in strategic implementation resulting to incompetent management and academic research performance as summarized in figure 2. These reasons include incompetent management, inadequate strategy, neglect of political interest, a culture of fear, insufficient control and planning, and absence of implementation plan.

 
Figure 2: Reasons why organizations experience the failure in strategic implementation
Rosenberg (2015) points out that the managers have the responsibility to ensure a good outcome through the decisions they make in their managerial positions. Getting the academic research background on the right decision-making within the organization is hence vital in elevating the sensitivity of the managers in external and internal factors of varied nature while managing their roles in the organizational environment (Zikmund 1997, p. 65). However, the decision-making procedures implemented in balancing between the academic research roles and the managerial roles control the achievements and blunders made within the organization. Rosenberg (2015) stated that managers with academic research skills and knowledge should be very keen on the decisions they are making with the various research methods for the advantage of the organization. Practical decision-making skills are necessary in order to evaluate risks while balancing between the managerial and academic business research roles for the achievement of the strategic goals of the organization (Brown 1997, p. 24).

Conclusion
Through research skills and knowledge, managers improving their thinking skills while narrowing the problems they are facing in the workable matter and intelligently dealing with business issues while drawing from a vast collection of literature on related managerial matters. On the other hand, Skills and knowledge on research cannot be appropriate for every manager as there is no specific uniform standardization of role and skills linked to management. In other words, anyone can be a manager or a researcher, but not everyone can be both researcher and manager. However, adding the knowledge of research to management roles is can be a strategic key for the benefit of the organization.

In such a manner, managers can achieve a clear understanding of business intelligence concerns and issues within the business environment. It hence facilitates the improvement in forming intelligent and economic decisions that can lead to better actions and sustainable performance e of the organization. So how can we effectively add the role of academic research to the present cluster of roles for organizational managers? It is a question that requires further research and study as a result of the common dynamics as a result of the tension and confusion that occurs when leaders are requested to wear two hats. Even though the functional hats take precedence as the most immediate managerial role, keeping full-time function roles without creating a real space for other duties is a one step towards failure.

List of references
Agnew N., Pyke S.,(1994) “The Science Game: An Introduction to Research in the Social Sciences”pp 269 – 290 
Bareham, J., Bourner, T. and Stevens, G. (2000). “The DBA: What is it for?” Careers Development International. Vol. 5, no. 7, pp 394-403 
Brown R. (1997), “You Can’t Expect Rationality from Pregnant Men: Reflections on Multi-disciplinarily in Management Research”, pp 23-30 
Dent, Eric B. (2002). “Developing Scholarly Practitioners: Doctoral Management Education in the 21st Century”. Chapter 6 in Wankel, C. and De Fillipi, R. eds. (2002). Rethinking Management Education for the 21st Century. Information Age, N.Y. 
Denzin N, Lincoln Y, (1994) “Handbook of Qualitative Research” pp 1 – 17 
Kilduff M.,Mehra A., (1997), “Postmodernism and Organizational Research”, pp 453 – 481 
Raelin J., (1997), “Action Learning and Action Science – Are They Different?”pp 21-34 
Robinson, (1993), “Current Controversies in Action Research” 
Rosenberg, S, 2015, Manager role and business researcher, Retrieved from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/manager-roles-business-researcher-svein-rosenberg
Sekaran, Uma & Bougie, R. (2014) Research Methods for Business: a skill-building approach, 6th ed., West Sussex, UK, Wiley
The Logic of Social Research”, pp 1-15 
Zikmund M., (1997), “Business Research Methods” pp 63-78 
Whitley R., (1984), “The Scientific Status of Management Research As a Practically Oriented Social Science”pp 369-390

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