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Political and Cultural Transformations and Continuities in the Mediterranean
Throughout world history, the Roman and Byzantine Empire had several political and cultural changes. Although there many drastic transformations, some political and cultural aspects remained the same. Both empires took time around 200 C.E to 1000 C.E. The fall of the Roman Empire and the rise of the Byzantine Empire were major events that occured during that time period.
The Romans participated in feudalism and there were only one ruler allowed to rule over the society. The ruler at the time allowed the monarchs to provide land to their loyal vassals. When the fall of the Roman Empire occurred in 476 C.E, feudalism began to emerge. In the beginning, the emperor of the Roman Empire was known to protect the whole domain. When the empire slowly started to become a complete monarchy, the rulers heading was gone. After that adjustment, the emperor was no longer the ruler but now was above the law. The main form of government became the religious monarchism due to religious and political reasons. With changed, there also were continuities in the Roman Empire as well. Because the Greeks had formed a successful foundation of demorcy, the laws that the Romans created were similar to the Greeks. During the time of the Roman Republic laws such as checks and balances were created due to the new constitution. These ideas were so successful that they’ve disposed of the same laws for several centuries. Not only were there political changes and continuities there were cultural aspects that remained the same as well.
Religion played a huge part in Roman culture. Before the split of Rome, the Roman Empire had legalized Christianity in 313 C.E. However, because Christianity spread rapidly it soon became an official religion. After the fall of Rome And the rise of the Byzantine Empire, Christianity turned into one of their main continuities.

The Roman Empire split into two during 330 C.E. After the split the Roman Empire had fell off off in 476 C.E. As other cultures took over half of the empire, the other half was known as the Byzantine Empire. Emperors were smart enough to create relationships with others for their benefits. For that reason, creating friendships with foreign lands made sure that they gained protection. The emperor of the Byzantine Empire created an alliance with an Umayyad Caliphate in order to restore the territory in the Cyprus. The emperor would often use the Eastern Orthodoxy in order to make rulership become more substantial. Bureaucracy was also often used to not only provide but survive their land. Nomads were known to divide their society which left the Byzantine Empire irate. To further protect their empire, the byzantines invaded the berbers in order to influence their society. After the invasion of the berbers, they converted over to a fragmented society. However, the Byzantine Empire continued to stay a united society.
In the Byzantine Empire,culture and trade were both extremely diverse. Although the Byzantine Empire was highly influenced by the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire influence many cultures as well. Religion was also an important cultural aspect in the Byzantine Empire as well due to playing a huge a part of the christian orthodoxy. The Byzantine society was very religious. Citizens from this Empire had strong self esteems and carried values that were highly praised with them. Just like the Roman Empire, christianity was the official religion of the Byzantine Empire. One of the main changes in religion was the split between the Roman Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox. In their religious buildings you could see fine architecture that could still be found in region such as Egypt and Russia.
All in all, there continued to be political and cultural transformations and continuities from 200 to 1000 C.E in the Mediterranean. Without the influences that had caused these changes, the Roman and Byzantine Empires wouldn’t have gone through their successes and challenges they’ve faced throughout world history.

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