Reduced Device Count Asymmetrical Multilevel

Inverter Topology Using Different PWM Techniques

Shubham Kumar Gupta

Deparment of Electrical Engineering

MITS Gwalior, India

[email protected]

Praveen Bansal

Department of Electrical Engineering

MITS Gwalior, India

[email protected]

Abstract– This paper presents a new topology in a

multilevel inverter (MLI) field with reduce device count and

less number of dc voltage source with different PWM

technique. This Proposed topology offers high power capability

associated with less commutation losses, less total harmonic

distortion (THD). For a specific number of levels in output,

proposed topology required less switching components and DC

voltage sources in comparison of Conventional topologies. This

topology used asymmetric voltage sources is in nature, that

required three asymmetric voltage sources and eight switching

devices for producing 15-Level single phase output voltage.

This topology is simple and optimal, which can be easily

extended for higher level in output voltage of multilevel

inverter. This paper presents the comparison of total harmonic

distortion, with different pulse width modulation technique,

with different modulation index, and the simulation result of

proposed topology for single phase 15-level multilevel inverter,

which are carried out by using MATLAB/Simulink R2013a

software version.

Keywords— Multilevel Inverter (MLI), Pulse Width

Modulation (PWM), Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)

I. INTRODUCTION

Multilevel inverter (MLI) is an extended form of an

inverter, which appears in power electronics systems in

1975, because of the requirement of the good quality power,

with better system efficiency 1. Multilevel inverters

becomes more popular over the years in high power medium

voltage application because of its capability of handling the

high power with less harmonic distortion (THD), reduced

switching losses and good power quality. As the number of

levels in output voltage waveform increases, harmonics in

the output voltage waveform decreases. In comparison with

two level inverter, multilevel inverter has several advantages

like lower commutation losses that’s why efficiency is

improved, less dv/dt stress across the switch, lower

harmonic contents, lower electromagnetic interference

(EMI), and reduced filter size 234. In multilevel

inverter (MLI) requirement of power electronics switching

components is more, which makes configuration complex

and costly 5, can be considered as a disadvantage of MLI.

Multilevel inverter is used to generate a multiple step

output waveform, to achieve smoother and less distorted DC

to AC power conversion at desired AC output voltage 6.

The general concept of multilevel inverter is, utilizing a

more number of semiconductor switches to perform the

power conversion in small voltage steps. There are mainly

three types of conventional multilevel inverter, Diode

clamped multilevel inverter (DCMLI) 7, Flying capacitor

multilevel inverter (FCMLI) 2, and cascaded H-bridge

(CHB) multilevel inerter 8. In DCMLI topology, as the

number of levels in voltage increased, more number of

clamping diodes required. In FCMLI topology, as the

number of levels in voltage increased, more number of

flying capacitor required. CHB multilevel inverter topology

is the simplest topology among the all conventional

topologies. In CHB multilevel inverter topology, clamping

diodes and flying capacitors are not required, but as the

number of levels in voltage increased, more number of DC

voltage sources required.

Generally, CHB multilevel inverters can be

classified in two types: Symmetric and Asymmetric

multilevel inverters. When the value of DC voltage sources

in H-bridges are equal, is called Symmetric multilevel

inverters. When the value of DC voltage sources in H-

bridges are unequal, is called Asymmetric multilevel

inverter. Asymmetrical topologies required less switching

devices and voltage sources as compared to symmetrical

topologies for same levels in output voltage. This paper

proposed a topology for Asymmetrical multilevel inverter,

which required less number of switching devices in

comparison with conventional topologies 4. For 15-Level

MLI total device count required in proposed topology is

compared with conventional topologies, shown in Table III.

This paper used different pulse width modulation techniques

to analyze total harmonic distortion in the output voltage

waveform.

II. PROPOSED TOPOLOGY

This paper proposed a topology based on

asymmetrical multilevel inerter, shown in Fig. 1, which

required N unequal voltage sources (V1, V2, V3….. VN) and

(2N+2) unidirectional switches (S1, S2, S3, S4….. S(2N+2) ),

for (2N-1) levels in output voltage of proposed multilevel

inverter. Generally, the proposed topology produces

maximum voltage (Vn + Vn-1). The proposed topology starts

with 7 level, for which two unequal voltage sources and six

unidirectional switches, consists of IGBT with an

antiparallel diode, required. For generating all positive and

negative levels, magnitude of voltage sources (V1:V2)

should be in the ratio of (1:2).

To generate 15-Level MLI, proposed topology

required three unequal voltage sources and eight

unidirectional switches, shown in Fig. 2, it is clear that

switching combination of (S1, S2), (S3, S4), (S5, S6), and

(S7, S8) should not be turned ‘ON’, simultaneously, to avoid

short circuit across the voltages. To generate all the positive

and negative levels in the output voltage, magnitude of the

voltage sources (V1:V2:V3) should be in the ratio of (1:2:5).

For different levels of 15-Level MLI, different switching

combinations are shown in Table I, in which, state 1 to state

7 present positive levels, state 8 present Zero level and state

9 to state 15 present negative levels in the output voltage

waveform of proposed MLI. State condition “1” and “0”

shows the corresponding switch is turn ‘ON’ or turn ‘OFF’,

respectively.

In this paper for 15-Level MLI, V1=50V,

V2=100V, V3=250V, and Load R= 10? is used, and ±350V,

±300V, ±250V, ±200V, ±150V, ±100V, ±50V, and 0V, are

the 15 levels in output voltage waveform generated, shown

in Fig. 9.

Proposed topology required ten unidirectional

switches and four unequal voltage sources to generate 31-

Level MLI, which can be obtain by adding two switches and

one voltage source in 15-Level MLI. Similarly, by

connecting more switches and more voltage sources, more

levels in output voltage of proposed MLI can be obtained.

TABLE I. SWITCHING SCHEME FOR PROPOSED 15-LEVEL MLI

STATES SWITCHING SCHEME OUTPUT

VOLTAGE

S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8

1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 V3 + V2

2 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 V3 + V2 –=V1

3 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 V3

4 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 V3 –=V1

5 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 V2 + V1

6 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 V2

7 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 V1

8 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0

1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0

9 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 -V1

10 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 -V2

11 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 -(V2 + V1)

12 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 -(V3 –=V1)

13 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 -V3

14 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 -(V3 + V2 –=V1)

15 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 -(V3 + V2)

Fig. 1. General Structure of Proposed Topology

Fig. 2. Proposed Model of 15-Level Asymmetrical MLI

III. OPERATING MODES OF PROPOSED TOPOLOGY

Fig (a) + (V3 + V2) Fig (b) + (V3 + V2 – V1)

(Level +7) (Level +6)

Fig (c) + (V3) Fig (d) + (V3 – V1)

(Level +5) (Level +4) LOAD

V1V2

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6Vo

Vn,

EVEN

Vn,

ODD LOAD

V1V2 V3

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

Vo LOAD

Vo

V1V2 V3

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8 LOAD

Vo

V1V2 V3

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8 LOAD

Vo

V1V2 V3

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8 LOAD

Vo

V1V2 V3

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

Fig (e) + (V2 + V1) Fig (f) + (V2)

(Level +3) (Level +2)

Fig (g) + (V1) Fig (h) (0)

(Level +1) (Level 0)

Fig (i) – (V1) Fig (j) – (V2)

(Level -1) (Level -2)

Fig (k) – (V2 + V1) Fig (l) – (V3 – V1)

(Level -3) (Level -4)

Fig (m) – (V3) Fig (n) – (V3 + V2 – V1)

(Level -5) (Level -6)

Fig (o) – (V3 + V2)

(Level -7)

Fig. 3. Fig (a-o) are the different Operating Modes of Proposed Topology for 15-Level MLI.

IV. MULTI CARRIER PWM TECHNIQUES

The main purpose of modulation techniques is to

produce a train of switching pulses, which is responsible for

generating sinusoidal waveform at output voltage in

multilevel inverter (MLI). By proper use of these techniques

THD in the output can be reduced. In modulation techniques

Reference signal is compared with Carrier signal 9. For N-

level inverter (N-1) carrier waves are required. The most

popular modulation technique used is, Multi-Carrier based

Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (MCSPWM) 10. In

this technique reference signal is sine wave of frequency 50

Hz and carrier signal is a triangular or inverted sine wave of

higher frequency than reference signal frequency. At each

and every point carrier signal is compared with the reference

signal, when the reference signal is greater than carrier

signal, switching pulse shows ‘1’ otherwise ‘0’. Addition of

the results of comparison between reference signal and

carrier signal produces the switching pulse which generates

levels in output voltage with different modulation index.

Modulation Index (Ma) is the ration of peak magnitudes of

the modulating waveform and the carrier waveform.

In this paper, PDPWM, PODPWM, and APODPWM

ISCPWM, and VFISCPWM techniques are used for 15-

Level MLI, shown in Fig. 4, Fig. 5, Fig. 6, Fig. 7, and Fig. 8

respectively.

? Phase Disposition Pulse Width Modulation

(PDPWM) Technique :–

In PDPWM technique, each and every

carrier waveforms are in same phase with same

amplitude and frequency.

Fig. 4. Carrier Arrangement for PDPWM techniques. LOAD

Vo

V1V2 V3

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8 LOAD

Vo

V1V2 V3

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8 LOAD

Vo

V1V2 V3

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8 LOAD

Vo

V1V2 V3

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8 LOAD

Vo

V1V2 V3

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8 LOAD

Vo

V1V2 V3

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8 LOAD

Vo

V1V2 V3

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8 LOAD

Vo

V1V2 V3

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8 LOAD

Vo

V1V2 V3

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

LOAD

Vo

V1V2 V3

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8 LOAD

Vo

V1V2 V3

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

? Phase Opposition Disposition Pulse Width

Modulation (PODPWM) Technique :–

In PODPWM technique, all carrier

waveforms above zero reference line are in same

phase with same amplitude and frequency, but

carrier waveforms below zero reference line are

180o out of phase to above zero reference line

carrier waveforms with same amplitude and

frequency.

Fig. 5. Carrier Arrangement for PODPWM techniques.

? Alternate Phase Opposition Disposition Pulse

Width Modulation (APODPWM) Technique :–

In APODPWM technique, all carrier

waveforms has same amplitude and frequency, but

all the carrier waveforms are 180o out of phase

with by its neighboring carrier waveforms.

Fig. 6. Carrier Arrangement for APODPWM techniques.

? Inverted Sine Carrier Pulse Width Modulation

(ISCPWM) Technique :–

In ISCPWM technique, reference signal

is sinusoidal waveform and carrier signals are

inverted sinusoidal waveforms. Frequency of

carrier signals are higher than reference signal,

which presents high fundamental output voltage

11.

Fig. 7. Carrier Arrangement for ISCPWM techniques.

? Variable Frequency Inverted Sine Carrier Pulse

Width Modulation (VFISCPWM) Techniques :–

In VFISCPWM technique, reference

signal is sinusoidal waveform and carrier signals

are inverted sinusoidal waveforms with variable

frequencies. In this technique, frequencies of

carrier signals are higher than reference signal.

This technique provides an enhanced fundamental

voltage and lower Total Harmonic Distortion

(THD) 12.

Fig. 8. Carrier Arrangement for VFISCPWM techniques.

V. SIMULATION RESULTS

The proposed topology for 15-Level asymmetric

multilevel inverter, simulated in MATLAB. Table III shows

the comparison of device count between proposed topology

and conventional topologies for 15-Level MLI. Table I

shows the switching schemes for 15-Level MLI. Table II

shows comparison between Total Harmonic Distortion

(THD) for different modulation technique at different

modulation index. The Simulation parameters for 15-Level

MLI are as following Resistance R=10? and DC Voltage

sources are V1=50V, V2=100V, and V3=250V. Output

Voltage Waveform of 15-Level MLI shown in Fig. 9. This

paper used five modulation techniques, PDPWM,

PODPWM, APODPWM, ISCPWM, and VFISCPWM with

different Modulation Index, at carrier signal frequency

2000Hz. Total Harmonic Distortion is carried out by using

FFT analysis in MATLAB/Simulink R2013b, shown in

Fig. 10, Fig. 11, Fig. 12, Fig. 13, and Fig. 14, respectively.

Fig. 9. Output Voltage Waveform of 15-Level Proposed Asymmetrical Multilevel Inverter (ASMLI)

Fig. 10. %THD of 15-Level ASMLI with PDPWM technique (Ma=1 and Mf=40)

Fig. 11. %THD of 15-Level ASMLI with PODPWM technique (Ma=1 and Mf=40)

Fig. 12. %THD of 15-Level ASMLI with APODPWM technique (Ma=1 and Mf=40)

Fig. 13. %THD of 15-Level ASMLI with ISPWM technique (Ma=1 and Mf=40)

Fig. 14. %THD of 15-Level ASMLI with VFISCPWM technique (Ma=1 and Mf=40)

TABLE II. COMPARISON OF %THD FOR DIFFERENT MODULATION TECHNIQUES WITH DIFFERENT MODULATION INDEX (MA)

Level Modulation

Index

Modulation Techniques

PD POD APOD ISC VFISC

7

Level

1 18.23 18.18 18.39 19.67 19.97

0.95 20.59 20.60 20.23 21.43 21.81

0.90 22.40 22.11 21.98 22.77 22.65

15

Level

1 7.85 8.62 7.65 8.41 7.96

0.95 8.56 8.53 8.89 9.12 8.68

0.90 8.80 8.26 8.67 9.46 8.84

TABLE III. COMPARISON OF COMPONENTS USED FOR 15-LEVEL MLI BETWEEN PROPOSED TOPOLOGY AND CONVENTINAL TOPOLOGIES

MLI

Component

Diode

Clamped

Flying

Capacitor

Cascaded

H-Bridge

Proposed

Topology

Switching

Devices 28 28 28 8

Clamping

Diode 182 0 0 0

DC Split

Capacitor 14 14 0 0

Clamping

Capacitors 0 91 0 0

DC

Sources 1 1 7 3

VI. CONCLUSION

This paper presents a new asymmetrical multilevel inverter

(ASMLI) topology, which has greater performance than

conventional topologies. The proposed ASMLI topology

reduces total harmonic distortion (THD), shown in table. II,

and modify the output voltage waveform. From table. III,

the proposed topology required less switching components

in comparison of conventional (DCMLI, FCMLI, and

CHBMLI) topologies, so that the overall cost of switching

components required, is reduced and efficiency improved.

For 15-Level MLI, THD is 7.65% by using alternate phase

opposition disposition pulse width modulation

(APODPWM) technique with modulation index (Ma=1).

The introduced topology was simulated and Harmonics

analysis carried out by using MATLAB/Simulink R2013a

version software.

VII. ACKNOWLWDGEMENT

The author gratefully acknowledges the guidance and

support of Electrical Engineering Department, MITS

Gwalior for Carrying out this work.

VIII. REFERENCES

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