Review Related Literature
This chapter presents foreign literature and studies as well as local literature and studies to gain a clearer perspective of the topic under investigation.
Braswell et al (2013) states that female headed single parent families are much more likely to be poor than other families. There is a huge different between a male headed family and female headed family in terms of providing for their children. Most likely male headed family is well provided than female headed family in terms of money. Since long time ago men are more given with the opportunity to work rather than women. Primarily, women are set to be at home taking care of the children and everything. But things has changed as time goes by, more opportunities are given to women because they have finally exercised their rights for equality. Although now, there are still few women who are being discriminated by their gender that’s why they couldn’t find or land a stable job but they still do find way to make a living.
According to Ratcliffe and McKernan (2012) children who lives in poverty due to single parent headed family doesn’t mean that they would forever be poor for their whole lives. It doesn’t mean that if a children is raised in poverty they would never finished school. As what they say, education is the key to success. Poverty is not a hindrance at all, education is available for everyone. Parents must see to it that their children are sent to school and learned something from school. The behavior of a children depends on what they have learned from school and most of all it depends on how they are raised by the parents. The children are a reflection of their parents.
Consumption. FMZ, Agustin (2016) states that an individual’s consumption and saving pattern are based on their income. Individuals allocate their consumption in the best possible way to have enough savings left for future or emergency need. They only need to consume what their income can only sustain. It is not advisable to consume more than the income generated because it can cause shortage and their will be no saving. Single Parents must learn how to budget their income. Needs must be prioritized over wants.
Stover, Britta (2012) states that in a life cycle of a family, consumption behavior depends on the needs and amount of income. Consumption, Income and Saving are connected to each other. When income rises, consumption also rises or could either increase in savings and when income is low, consumption is also low and is unlikely sure to save. Consumption must not overpower income because consumption is dependent on how much the income is.
Andal et al (2016) states that consumption and saving are kept at their current levels by individuals, they could either increase their consumption and decrease their saving or they can slowly increase their consumption and decrease their saving. It really depends to the individual on how they spend to sustain their food, clothing, shelter, school needs and many more.The attitude of individual on spending plays a vital role to keep track on the consumption and saving pattern of single parents headed family.
According to Belle (2011) expenses such as childcare, transportation for their children, costs of maintaining a home, rent/mortgage and education must be allocated. If consumption is bigger than the income one must find way to cope up the excess expenses. Parents living in poverty with no enough education has no reason not to finish their studies because the government provides some scholarship that may help them in finding a stable job that can be helpful in sustaining the needs for his/her family. In the Philippines, Senator Loren Legarda has filed Senate Bill No. 1429 entitled “Solo Parents Welfare Act of 2010.” it is the implementation and Information Campaign for RA 8972 known as the Solo Parents’ Welfare Act of 2000.
According to Legarda, Loren (2013) SB 1429, a “solo parent or single parent” is an individual who is solely responsible for taking care of a child or children due to to spouse’s death, imprisonment, mental incapacity, or legal separation. Women who are victim of rape and pregnant are also considered as a single parent.Single parents can get a (10%) rebate when buying clothes for their children from birth up to two years, (15%) markdown when buying food or milk, (15%) percent rebate when buying medicines and basic personal exemption from individual income tax. There is already the Republic Act No. 8972 which is known as the “Solo Parents’ Welfare Act of 2000″or “An Act Providing for Benefits and Privileges to Solo Parents and their Children, Appropriating Funds therefore and for Other Purposes.