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Serotonin syndrome

Name: Farah nidal alashik
ID: 201610691
Section: 22
Dr: nageeb

index
Topic page
Definition 3
Causes 4
Risk factors 5
Symptoms 6
Diagnosis 7
Treatment plan 8-9
Prevention 10

Definition:
Serotonin syndrome occurs when taking drugs that cause accumulation of high level of serotonin in the body. Serotonin syndrome can occur when you increase your dose or add a new medicine to your treatment regimen. The use of certain illegal drugs and supplements is associated with serotonin syndrome.

Serotonin is a chemical produced by the body and it’s necessary for the work of neurons and brain. But high serotonin levels cause symptoms ranging from simple (chills, diarrhea) to severe (muscle stiffness, fever, and seizures). Severe serotonin syndrome can be deadly if not treated.

Causes:
The excessive accumulation of serotonin results in symptoms of serotonin syndrome.
In normal circumstances, nerve cells in the brain or spinal cord produce serotonin, which helps regulate attention, behavior and body temperature. Other neurons in the body, mainly found in intestine, also produce serotonin. In these other regulating the digestive process, blood flow and breathing.
Although the possibility of taking one drug, increases serotonin levels can lead to serotonin syndrome in suspected individuals, this condition often occurs when some medication are combined. For example, serotonin syndrome may occur if you are taking an antidepressant with opioid analgesic. Another cause of serotonin syndrome is a deliberate overdose of antidepressant drugs.
A number of prescription or non-prescription drugs may be associated with serotonin syndrome, especially antidepressant. This may also be related to illicit drug use and dietary supplements.

Risk factors:
Some people are more susceptible to drugs and supplements that cause serotonin syndrome than others, but the condition can occur for anyone.

You may have risk of developing serotonin syndrome if you:
• If you has recently begun to take a dose or increase it from a drug known to increase serotonin levels.
• Herbal supplements are known to increase serotonin levels.
• Illicit drugs are known to increase serotonin levels.

Symptoms:
Symptoms of serotonin syndrome usually occur within several hours of taking a new drug or increasing the dose of the drug yu are already taking. Symptoms include the following:
• Confusion
• Rapid heart rate and high blood pressure
• Muscle stiffness
• Diarrhea
• Shiver
• Headache
Sever serotonin syndrome can be life-threatening. Signs and symptoms include:
• High fever
• Irregular heartbeats
• Unconsciousness
• Seizures

Diagnosis:
One test does not confirm the diagnosis of serotonin syndrome. Your doctor will diagnose the disease by excluding other possibilities.
Your doctor will start asking about symptoms, medical history, and any medications you take. He may use tests to:
• Measure the levels of any drugs you use
• Check the signs of infection
• Check the body functions that may be affected by serotonin syndrome
Simple symptoms can result from many diseases. Causes of sever and moderate symptoms includes:
• Cholinergic antidepressant syndrome
• Malignant hyperplasia
The doctor may ask to do some test for example:
• Blood and urine tests
• Chest x-ray imaging
• Computed tomography (CT)
• Spinal puncture (lumbar puncture)

Treatment plan:
Treatment of serotonin syndrome depends on the severity of the symptoms. If the symptoms are simple, it may be enough to visit the doctor and stop the drugs that cause the problem.
If your symptoms are of concern to your doctor, you may need to go to the hospital. The doctor may ask the patient to stay in the hospital for several hours to ensure that the symptoms are improved.
In the case of acute serotonin syndrome, the patient may need intensive hospital treatment.
Depending on the symptoms, the following treatments are available:
• Muscle relaxants. Benzodiazepines, such as diazepam (valium) or laurazepam (Tiffany), can help control irritability, seizures and muscle stiffness.
• Serotonin inhibitors. If the patient does not benefit from other treatments, drugs such as cyproheptadine can help to limit serotonin production.
• Oxygen and intravenous fluids. The inhalation of oxygen through the mask helps maintain normal levels of oxygen in the blood, and intravenous fluids are useful in the treatment of drought and fever.
• Drugs that control heart rate and blood pressure. These drugs may include asymolol or nitroproids to reduce high heart rate or high blood pressure. If the blood pressure is too low, the doctor can give the patient phenyliferrin (ni-nifren) or epinephrine (adrenalin, epinephrine).
• Tube, respirator and medication for crippling muscle injury. The patient may need a breathing tube and medication to paralyze the muscles in case of high fever.

Slight forms of serotonin syndrome usually fade within 24 to 72 hours after stopping drugs that increase serotonin, and by obtaining drugs that actually limit serotonin effects in the device if needed. However, symptoms of serotonin-induced antidepressant syndrome may take several weeks to completely fade. These drugs remain longer in the body than other drugs that can cause serotonin syndrome.

Prevention:
Increased risk of living with serotonin syndrome is that regulation is more than a drug associated with serotonin, or you can prepare your dose of these drugs.
Talk to your doctor about possible risks. Do not take any of these medications on your own. If your doctor has prescribed a new medicine, be sure to know all other medicines.

Post Author: admin