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Title: Psychological career resources and career commitment in different sociodemographic groups.
Introduction
Diverse workforce have created a competitive global business market as it contributes to the organisation performances due to the work forces variety of skills, knowledge experiences and attitudes( Arnold & Randall, as cited in Ferreira& Coetzee 2010). A lot of organisations have found a diverse workforce has improved financial performance, improved workforce performance and competitive advantage (Wellbourne at all as cited in Ferreira& Coetzee 2010). It is strategical crucial to retain talented stuff as it has potential financial returns Swart, as cited in Ferreira& Coetzee 2010). They long term employees tend to have goals similar to that of the organisation (Storm& Root as cited in Ferreira& Coetzee 2010). Employees who feel that their psychological needs are being met tend to have job satisfaction to be more committed to the organization as a whole therefore end up staying with the organisation (Lumley: Coetzee & Schreuder as cited in Ferreira& Coetzee 2010.) The aim of this study was to see what and how various demographics have different psychological career resources and organisational commitment. The study is focused on possibly contributing to retaining valuable employees and career development to groups such as employees Africans and women who are now entering the South African Employment market.
Problem of inquiry
Globally the workforce has become quite diverse due the changing environments and it contributes to the organisations performance. Organisations are finding it more crucial to have committed employees
The question to be researched in this article there difference in different socio demographic groups when it came to psychological career resources and career commitment.
Literature review
The career resources model being used is the one developed by Cozetee (2007; 2008). “A well-developed range of psychological career resources is an indication of conscious, self-directed career behaviour that is internally guided and proactively driven by the individual himself.” (Ferreira& Coetzee 2010). Careers which are followed are due to the preferences and values we uniquely have. The values we have motivate us to our preferred career. According to Ferreira and Coetzee (2010), “Career drivers represent people’s sense of career purpose, directedness and orientation towards career venturing.” Author goes on to mention that career- orientated attitudes+ motivate us to try out new careers and job possibilities. Career directness means how clear one is on their career goals and course. “When people are seen to be career venturing is when there is some willingness to take risks.” (Ferreira& Coetzee 2010). The career enablers are those skills which can be transferred that can help them move to other careers (Ferreira& Coetzee 2010). Career harmonisers give controls, encourage resilience and flexibility. If your psychological career resources are established so that they will help u engage in career activity may help you improve job performance (Coetzee 2008; Ebberwein, Krieskok, Ulven & Prosser 2004; Van der Heijde & Van der Heijden 2006 as cited in Ferreira& Coetzee 2010).
Organisational commitment
According to Gbadamosi (2003 as cited in Ferreira& Coetzee 2010 ” a favourable attitude toward an organisation leads to a greater acceptance of the organisation’s goals, as well as an increased willingness to make greater efforts on behalf of that organisation.” Author of the article used Meyer and Allen’s (1991) three-component model of organisational commitments as it was important the research conducted. The preference to stay based on emotional attachment versus continuance commitment versus normative commitment are three main commitments the author noted. Meyer and Herscovitch (2001 ) mention the different mind-sets of commitment such affective commitment see their relevance or value which was derived from their involvement with organisation and those that are at the emotional level usually stay with the organisation (Beck ; Wilson, as cited in Ferreira; Coetzee 2010) . Mind set of continuance commitment is usually there when they stand to lose something or they have no other alternative (Meyer and Allen’s 1991 as cited in Ferreira& Coetzee 2010). The normative mind set make employees feel they have a moral obligation to the organisations (March & Mannari, as cited in Ferreira& Coetzee 2010).
Research design
The sample size of the test were “358 employed adults at managerial and staff levels in the field of economic and management services” Majority were Africans and females whites, coloureds, Indians and males were minority of the group. The Author in Ferreira& Coetzee 2010 used Participants completed the Psychological Career Resources Inventory (PCRI) (Coetzee 2007) and the Organisational Commitment Scale (OCS). The management of higher education institution that participated in the survey gained ethical clearance and permission to conduct the survey Ferreira& Coetzee 2010) . Author went on to state that, “The data analysis procedures chosen for this research were based on their relevance to the exploratory nature of the research design”
Findings
In terms of gender the results showed suggest that the participants seem to be keen on jobs that have more stability and opportunities which help them develop and grow in their expertise, however female participants felt a stronger need than male to venture into new jobs. This was contrary to past researchers findings (Ferreira& Coetzee 2010). When it came to age the survey found that the results showed individuals 25years and younger believe that they are going to achieve their goals and those between 45years and 55years were more prone to continue working in the position they were at the same organisation (Ferreira& Coetzee 2010). Africans in the research were noted to be the ones who were keener to have higher level positions such as management as they saw it as a way of improving their lives (Ferreira& Coetzee 2010). However the later was seen as also true in separated /divorced participants as they felt managerial positions gave some degree of power (Ferreira& Coetzee 2010). Those in managerial positions also showed that in the research showed to have a normative commitment and those that were in executive positions wanted more secure jobs where they could use their skills (Ferreira& Coetzee 2010)
Conclusion
This study provides crucial a knowledge that can be used in future studies which relate to retention policies and career development. All aspects which relate to “the psychological contract between an employee and the organisation and are generally influenced by the individuals’ experiences both prior to and following entry into the organisation “(Allen & Meyer 1990 as cited in Ferreira& Coetzee 2010). Key priority of this research was to inform the human resources and researchers how diverse groups can differ in terms of their organisational commitment and psychological career needs (Ferreira& Coetzee 2010). This research had some limitations to it. The findings could not be applied other sectors and occupational contexts. Author went to mentions the sample group maybe biased as it had more Africans and women therefore could not give a fair answer. Finally “longitudinal studies are needed in order to validate the differences observed in this study between the various sociodemographic groups.” (Ferreira& Coetzee 2010).

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